What are the molecules of life?

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1 Molecules of Life

2 What are the molecules of life? Organic Compounds Complex Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

3 Organic Compounds Carbon- hydrogen based molecules

4 From Structure to Function Ø Carbon s importance to life stems from its versatile bonding behavior Carbon can make four bonds

5 Ø Carbon can bond to other carbon atoms and to many other elements Ø Many organic molecules have a backbone: chain of carbon atoms

6 Hydrocarbons Organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen Generally nonpolar

7 Functional Groups An atom or group of atoms that is attached to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule and gives it its unique chemical properties

8 Molecular Formula Structural Formula Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 Fructose: C 6 H 12 O 6 Isomers: Molecules with same molecular formula but different molecular structures Arrangement of atoms/ Emergent properties

9 Molecules of Life: Biological Molecules All biological systems are based on the same biological molecules The details of those molecules differ among organisms

10 Molecules of Life: Organic Macromolecules Essential for Life Simple organic building blocks bonded in different numbers and arrangements form different versions of the molecules of life Ø Monomers: subunits of larger molecules Ø Polymers: consist of multiple monomers Ø Cells build polymers from monomers, and break down polymers to release monomers

11 Condensation Reactions/ Dehydration Synthesis The Process by which cells link monomers to form a polymer

12 Hydrolysis The process by which macromolecules or polymers are broken down into monomers

13

14 Carbohydrates C, H, O (1:2:1) Structure, Energy and Storage Monosaccharides/ Simple sugars Oligosaccharides/ Short chains Polysaccharides/ Complex carbohydrates/ Long chains

15 Monosaccharides One sugar Monomers of carbohydrates Common monosaccharides have a backbone of five or six carbon atoms Glucose

16 In aqueous solutions, many monosaccharides form rings Glucose

17 Ø Cells use monosaccharides for cellular fuel Ø Breaking the bonds of sugars releases energy that can be harnessed to power other cellular processes Ø Monosaccharides are also used as: Ø Precursors for other molecules Ø Structural materials to build larger molecules

18 Oligosaccharides Ø Oligosaccharides are short chains of covalently bonded monosaccharides Ø Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers Ø Examples: Ø Lactose: composed of glucose + galactose Ø Sucrose: composed of glucose + fructose

19 How do disaccharides form?

20 Polysaccharides Ø Chains of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharide monomers Cellulose Starch Glycogen Ø Formed by the process of dehydration synthesis

21 Ø Main structural component of plants cell wall Ø Tough and insoluble Cellulose Ø Composed of chains of glucose monomers stretched side by side and hydrogen-bonded at many OH groups

22 Starch Ø Main energy reserve in plants Ø Stored roots, stems, leaves, seeds, and fruits Ø Composed of a series of glucose monomers that form a chain that coils up

23 Glycogen Ø Main energy reserve in animals Ø Very abundant in muscle and liver cells Ø Highly branched chains of glucose monomers

24 Lipids C, H, O Ø Very diverse group with diverse functions/ energy, hormones,. Ø No typical monomers or polymers Ø Fats, Phospholipids, Waxes and Steroids Ø Hydrophobic: they do not mix well with water

25 Lipids Many lipids incorporate fatty acids Fatty Acid: Long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group

26 Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fatty Acids

27 Fats/ Glycerol with one, two or three fatty acids Triglyceride

28 Hydrogenated Oils and Trans Fats Ø Created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to unsaturated fats (breaking the double bonds) Ø Associated with cardiovascular diseases: Plaque build up within the walls of blood vessels Read the labels

29 Phospholipids/ lipid with a phosphate group Ø Phospholipids make a bilayer in an aqueous solution Ø Major component of cell membranes

30 Waxes Ø Complex, varying mixture of lipids with long fatty acid tails bonded to alcohols or carbon rings Ø Molecules pack tightly, so waxes are firm and water-repellent Ø Plants secrete waxes to restrict water loss and keep out parasites and other pests

31 Steroids/ no fatty acid tails Carbon skeleton contains four fused rings Cholesterol/ remodeled Functional groups attached to the rings define the type of steroid

32 Proteins Molecular Tools of the Cell

33 Types of Proteins Structural (hair, feathers, spider web) Contractile (Actin and Myosin in muscles) Signal (built in the membrane of nerve cells) Hormones (Insulin) Transport (Hemoglobin in red blood cells and transport proteins embedded in the cell membrane) Defensive (antibodies) Storage (Albumin in egg white to nourish the embryo) Enzymes (digestive enzymes to hydrolyze polymers of food)

34 Monomers of Proteins: Amino Acids C, H, O, N There are 20 amino acids

35 Amino Acids are linked together to form a polypeptide chain through the process of dehydration synthesis

36 So what functional groups are always present at the ends of a polypeptide chain? NH 2 COOH

37 Protein Structure Primary Ø Unique amino acid sequence specific to each protein

38 Protein Structure Secondary polypeptide chain that forms twists and folds/ hydrogen bonds between amine and carboxyl groups

39 Protein Structure Tertiary Ø More folding and coiling of the helices and sheets by interactions between the R groups Ø It determines the function of the protein

40 Quaternary Protein Structure Ø Association of many polypeptides (subunits)

41 Classes of Proteins Some types of proteins aggregate into much larger structures Globular Proteins Fibrous Proteins

42 Protein s Specific Shape Determines its Function Denaturation: Proteins losing their function as a result of losing their specific three dimensional shape/ conformation Ø Heat, salt and acidity can denature proteins by breaking the hydrogen bonds

43 Nucleic Acids Store and transmit hereditary information C, H, O, N, P

44 The Monomers of Nucleic Acids: Nucleotides Nitrogenous bases: Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Uracil Purines Pyrimidines A T C G in DNA A U C G in RNA

45 Adenosine Triphosphate ATP (a nucleotide) Energy currency of the cell base (adenine) phosphate groups

46 A nucleic acid polymer is built from its monomers by dehydration synthesis Nucleic Acids

47 Nucleic Acids Two main types: Ø DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Ø RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)

48 Differences between DNA and RNA DNA Ø Double Helix Ø ATCG Ø Deoxyribose sugar RNA Ø Single strand Ø AUCG Ø Ribose sugar

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