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1 Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

2 Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division The ability of organisms to reproduce best distinguishes living things from nonliving matter The continuity of life is based on the reproduction of cells, or cell division Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

3 Fig. 12-1

4 In unicellular organisms, division of one cell reproduces the entire organism Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for: Development from a fertilized cell Growth Repair Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle, the life of a cell from formation to its own division Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

5 Fig µm 200 µm 20 µm (a) Reproduction (b) Growth and development (c) Tissue renewal

6 Fig. 12-2a 100 µm (a) Reproduction

7 Fig. 12-2b 200 µm (b) Growth and development

8 Fig. 12-2c 20 µm (c) Tissue renewal

9 Concept 12.1: Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells Most cell division results in daughter cells with identical genetic information, DNA A special type of division produces nonidentical daughter cells (gametes, or sperm and egg cells) Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

10 Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material All the DNA in a cell constitutes the cell s genome A genome can consist of a single DNA molecule (common in prokaryotic cells) or a number of DNA molecules (common in eukaryotic cells) DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into chromosomes Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

11 Fig µm

12 Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus Somatic cells (nonreproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of chromatin, a complex of DNA and protein that condenses during cell division Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

13 Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division In preparation for cell division, DNA is replicated and the chromosomes condense Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids, which separate during cell division The centromere is the narrow waist of the duplicated chromosome, where the two chromatids are most closely attached Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

14 Fig µm Chromosomes DNA molecules Chromosome arm Centromere Chromosome duplication (including DNA synthesis) Sister chromatids Separation of sister chromatids Centromere Sister chromatids

15 Eukaryotic cell division consists of: Mitosis, the division of the nucleus Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm Gametes are produced by a variation of cell division called meiosis Meiosis yields nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes, half as many as the parent cell Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

16 Concept 12.2: The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle In 1882, the German anatomist Walther Flemming developed dyes to observe chromosomes during mitosis and cytokinesis Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

17 Phases of the Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis and cytokinesis) Interphase (cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division) Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

18 Interphase (about 90% of the cell cycle) can be divided into subphases: G 1 phase ( first gap ) S phase ( synthesis ) G 2 phase ( second gap ) The cell grows during all three phases, but chromosomes are duplicated only during the S phase Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

19 Fig G 1 S (DNA synthesis) G 2

20 Mitosis is conventionally divided into five phases: Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis is well underway by late telophase BioFlix: Mitosis Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

21 Fig G 2 of Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and Cytokinesis Centrosomes Chromatin (with centriole (duplicated) pairs) Early mitotic spindle Aster Centromere Fragments of nuclear envelope Nonkinetochore microtubules Metaphase plate Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Nucleolus Nuclear Plasma envelope membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubule Spindle Centrosome at one spindle pole Daughter chromosomes Nuclear envelope forming

22 Fig. 12-6a G 2 of Interphase Prophase Prometaphase

23 Fig. 12-6b G 2 of Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Chromatin (duplicated) Early mitotic spindle Aster Centromere Fragments of nuclear envelope Nonkinetochore microtubules Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubule

24 Fig. 12-6c Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and Cytokinesis

25 Fig. 12-6d Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and Cytokinesis Metaphase plate Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Spindle Centrosome at one spindle pole Daughter chromosomes Nuclear envelope forming

26 The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look The mitotic spindle is an apparatus of microtubules that controls chromosome movement during mitosis During prophase, assembly of spindle microtubules begins in the centrosome, the microtubule organizing center The centrosome replicates, forming two centrosomes that migrate to opposite ends of the cell, as spindle microtubules grow out from them Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

27 An aster (a radial array of short microtubules) extends from each centrosome The spindle includes the centrosomes, the spindle microtubules, and the asters Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

28 During prometaphase, some spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes and begin to move the chromosomes At metaphase, the chromosomes are all lined up at the metaphase plate, the midway point between the spindle s two poles Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

29 Fig Aster Centrosome Microtubules Chromosomes Sister chromatids Metaphase plate Kinetochores Centrosome 1 µm Overlapping nonkinetochore microtubules Kinetochore microtubules 0.5 µm

30 In anaphase, sister chromatids separate and move along the kinetochore microtubules toward opposite ends of the cell The microtubules shorten by depolymerizing at their kinetochore ends Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

31 Fig EXPERIMENT Kinetochore Spindle pole Mark RESULTS CONCLUSION Microtubule Chromosome movement Motor protein Chromosome Kinetochore Tubulin subunits

32 Fig. 12-8a EXPERIMENT Kinetochore Spindle pole Mark RESULTS

33 Fig. 12-8b CONCLUSION Chromosome movement Kinetochore Microtubule Motor protein Chromosome Tubulin Subunits

34 Nonkinetochore microtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other, elongating the cell In telophase, genetically identical daughter nuclei form at opposite ends of the cell Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

35 Cytokinesis: A Closer Look In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage, forming a cleavage furrow In plant cells, a cell plate forms during cytokinesis Animation: Cytokinesis Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

36 Video: Animal Mitosis Video: Sea Urchin (Time Lapse) Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

37 Fig Cleavage furrow 100 µm Vesicles forming cell plate Wall of parent cell Cell plate 1 µm New cell wall Contractile ring of microfilaments (a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM) Daughter cells (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM) Daughter cells

38 Fig. 12-9a Cleavage furrow 100 µm Contractile ring of microfilaments Daughter cells (a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM)

39 Fig. 12-9b Vesicles forming cell plate Wall of parent cell Cell plate 1 µm New cell wall Daughter cells (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM)

40 Fig Nucleus Chromatin Nucleolus condensing Chromosomes Cell plate 10 µm 1 Prophase 2 Prometaphase 3 Metaphase 4 Anaphase 5 Telophase

41 Fig a Nucleus Nucleolus Chromatin condensing 1 Prophase

42 Fig b Chromosomes 2 Prometaphase

43 Fig c 3 Metaphase

44 Fig d 4 Anaphase

45 Fig e Cell plate 10 µm 5 Telophase

46 Binary Fission Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) reproduce by a type of cell division called binary fission In binary fission, the chromosome replicates (beginning at the origin of replication), and the two daughter chromosomes actively move apart Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

47 Fig Origin of replication E. coli cell Two copies of origin Cell wall Plasma membrane Bacterial chromosome

48 Fig Origin of replication E. coli cell Two copies of origin Cell wall Plasma membrane Bacterial chromosome Origin Origin

49 Fig Origin of replication E. coli cell Two copies of origin Cell wall Plasma membrane Bacterial chromosome Origin Origin

50 Fig Origin of replication E. coli cell Two copies of origin Cell wall Plasma membrane Bacterial chromosome Origin Origin

51 The Evolution of Mitosis Since prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes, mitosis probably evolved from binary fission Certain protists exhibit types of cell division that seem intermediate between binary fission and mitosis Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

52 Fig Bacterial chromosome (a) Bacteria Chromosomes Microtubules (b) Dinoflagellates Intact nuclear envelope Kinetochore microtubule Intact nuclear envelope (c) Diatoms and yeasts Kinetochore microtubule (d) Most eukaryotes Fragments of nuclear envelope

53 Fig ab Bacterial chromosome (a) Bacteria Chromosomes Microtubules (b) Dinoflagellates Intact nuclear envelope

54 Fig cd Kinetochore microtubule Intact nuclear envelope (c) Diatoms and yeasts Kinetochore microtubule (d) Most eukaryotes Fragments of nuclear envelope

55 Concept 12.3: The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system The frequency of cell division varies with the type of cell These cell cycle differences result from regulation at the molecular level Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

56 Evidence for Cytoplasmic Signals The cell cycle appears to be driven by specific chemical signals present in the cytoplasm Some evidence for this hypothesis comes from experiments in which cultured mammalian cells at different phases of the cell cycle were fused to form a single cell with two nuclei Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

57 Fig EXPERIMENT Experiment 1 Experiment 2 S G 1 M G 1 RESULTS S S M M When a cell in the S phase was fused with a cell in G 1, the G 1 nucleus immediately entered the S phase DNA was synthesized. When a cell in the M phase was fused with a cell in G 1, the G 1 nucleus immediately began mitosis a spindle formed and chromatin condensed, even though the chromosome had not been duplicated.

58 The Cell Cycle Control System The sequential events of the cell cycle are directed by a distinct cell cycle control system, which is similar to a clock The cell cycle control system is regulated by both internal and external controls The clock has specific checkpoints where the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is received Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

59 Fig G 1 checkpoint G 1 Control system S M G 2 M checkpoint G 2 checkpoint

60 For many cells, the G 1 checkpoint seems to be the most important one If a cell receives a go-ahead signal at the G 1 checkpoint, it will usually complete the S, G 2, and M phases and divide If the cell does not receive the go-ahead signal, it will exit the cycle, switching into a nondividing state called the G 0 phase Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

61 Fig G 0 G 1 checkpoint G 1 (a) Cell receives a go-ahead signal G 1 (b) Cell does not receive a go-ahead signal

62 The Cell Cycle Clock: Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases Two types of regulatory proteins are involved in cell cycle control: cyclins and cyclindependent kinases (Cdks) The activity of cyclins and Cdks fluctuates during the cell cycle MPF (maturation-promoting factor) is a cyclin- Cdk complex that triggers a cell s passage past the G 2 checkpoint into the M phase Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

63 Fig RESULTS Time (min) 500 0

64 Fig M G 1 S G 2 M G 1 S G 2 M G 1 MPF activity Cyclin concentration Time (a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during the cell cycle Degraded cyclin Cyclin is degraded Cdk G 2 checkpoint Cdk Cyclin accumulation MPF Cyclin (b) Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle

65 Fig a M G 1 S G 2 M G 1 S G 2 M G 1 MPF activity Cyclin concentration Time (a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during the cell cycle

66 Fig b Degraded cyclin Cdk Cyclin is degraded G 2 checkpoint Cdk Cyclin accumulation MPF Cyclin (b) Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle

67 Stop and Go Signs: Internal and External Signals at the Checkpoints An example of an internal signal is that kinetochores not attached to spindle microtubules send a molecular signal that delays anaphase Some external signals are growth factors, proteins released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide For example, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates the division of human fibroblast cells in culture Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

68 Fig Scalpels Petri plate Without PDGF cells fail to divide With PDGF cells proliferate Cultured fibroblasts 10 µm

69 Another example of external signals is densitydependent inhibition, in which crowded cells stop dividing Most animal cells also exhibit anchorage dependence, in which they must be attached to a substratum in order to divide Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

70 Fig Anchorage dependence Density-dependent inhibition Density-dependent inhibition (a) Normal mammalian cells 25 µm (b) Cancer cells 25 µm

71 Cancer cells exhibit neither density-dependent inhibition nor anchorage dependence Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

72 Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells Cancer cells do not respond normally to the body s control mechanisms Cancer cells may not need growth factors to grow and divide: They may make their own growth factor They may convey a growth factor s signal without the presence of the growth factor They may have an abnormal cell cycle control system Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

73 A normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell by a process called transformation Cancer cells form tumors, masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue If abnormal cells remain at the original site, the lump is called a benign tumor Malignant tumors invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize, exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body, where they may form secondary tumors Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

74 Fig Tumor Lymph vessel Blood vessel Glandular tissue Cancer cell Metastatic tumor 1 A tumor grows 2 Cancer cells 3 Cancer cells spread 4 from a single invade neigh- to other parts of cancer cell. boring tissue. the body. Cancer cells may survive and establish a new tumor in another part of the body.

75 Fig. 12-UN1 G 1 S Cytokinesis Mitosis G 2 MITOTIC (M) PHASE Prophase Telophase and Cytokinesis Anaphase Metaphase Prometaphase

76 Fig. 12-UN2

77 Fig. 12-UN3

78 Fig. 12-UN4

79 Fig. 12-UN5

80 Fig. 12-UN6

81 You should now be able to: 1. Describe the structural organization of the prokaryotic genome and the eukaryotic genome 2. List the phases of the cell cycle; describe the sequence of events during each phase 3. List the phases of mitosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase 4. Draw or describe the mitotic spindle, including centrosomes, kinetochore microtubules, nonkinetochore microtubules, and asters Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

82 5. Compare cytokinesis in animals and plants 6. Describe the process of binary fission in bacteria and explain how eukaryotic mitosis may have evolved from binary fission 7. Explain how the abnormal cell division of cancerous cells escapes normal cell cycle controls 8. Distinguish between benign, malignant, and metastatic tumors Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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