6 ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS PART II VITAMINS MINERALS WATER

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1 6 ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS PART II VITAMINS MINERALS WATER

2 VITAMINS What Are They? Tasteless organic compounds that you need in small amounts for growth, reproduction, and overall good health. The DO NOT provide calories (energy) for your body but are essential for well-being. There are 13 different vitamins and you get most of them from each of the food groups: VEGETABLES FRUITS GRAINS PROTEIN DAIRY FOLATE VITAMIN A VITAMIN C VITAMIN E FOLATE VITAMIN C FOLIC ACID NIACIN VITAMIN B6 VITAMIN B12 (IF FORTIFIED) RIBOFLAVIN THIAMIN NIACIN THIAMIN VITAMIN B6 VITAMIN B12 RIBOFLAVIN VITAMIN A VITAMIN B12 VITAMIN D

3 VITAMINS Why do you need them? They promote normal growth Provide proper metabolism Protect against certain diseases Needed by your body to grow, reproduce, and maintain good health Some function as antioxidants: Substances that neutralize unstable molecules that can damage the cells of the body and possibly contribute to the risk of chronic diseases. Vitamins A, C, and E and beta-carotene are antioxidants

4 Vitamins Fat Soluble vs. Water Soluble Fat-Soluble Vitamins Dissolve in fats Can be stored in fatty tissues of the body

5 Vitamins Fat Soluble vs. Water Soluble Water-Soluble Vitamins Dissolve in water Not stored in the body

6 Are Supplements a Healthy Substitute? Americans spend more than $11 Billion on vitamin and mineral supplements annually Why is it called a supplement? Because it should do just that...supplement your diet, not replace a healthy diet. Supplements are useful for people who cannot meet their needs through a regular, varied diet, such as: Women who may become pregnant (Folic Acid) Pregnant and breastfeeding women Older individuals Individuals who do not drink enough milk Individuals on low-calorie diets Strict vegetarians with limited dietary options for certain vitamins and nutrients Overconsumption can become poisonous

7 How Should You Get Your Vitamins? Foods are the best way to meet your vitamin needs Provide more than just vitamins Substances and nutrients in foods all work together to keep you healthy Fortified Foods (foods with added nutrients) can be an option for individuals whose diets fall short of some nutrients.

8 MINERALS WHAT ARE THEY? Elements essential to the nutrition of humans Work with other nutrients, such as protein and carbs, to enable your body to function properly. WHY DO YOU NEED THEM? Electrolytes (minerals that are charged ions in your body fluids) help maintain fluid balance Can work with your immune system Play a role in structural growth

9 MINERALS Macrominerals VS. Trace Elements MACROMINERALS Needed in amounts of 100mg or more per day Sodium Chloride Potassium Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Sulfur TRACE ELEMENTS AKA Microminerals Needed in amounts less than 20mg Iron Zinc Selenium Fluoride Chromium Copper Manganese Molybdenum

10 MINERALS... WHERE CAN YOU GET THEM? VEGETABLES FRUITS GRAINS PROTEIN DAIRY POTASSIUM CALCIUM MAGNESIUM POTASSIUM CALCIUM (fortified juice) SODIUM PHOSPHORUS MAGNESIUM IRON ZINC SODIUM PHOSPHORUS MAGNESIUM IRON ZINC POTASSIUM CALCIUM PHOSPHORUS

11 MACROMINERALS

12 MICROMINERALS

13 WATER WHY DO YOU NEED IT? Average healthy adult is about 60% water Aids digestion and cell growth and maintenance Facilitates chemical reactions Lubricates joints and cells Regulates body temperature Needed for overall well being

14 WATER How much do you need and what are the best sources? HOW MUCH DO YOU NEED? Depends on physical activity, environmental factors (ex: temperature), and diet BEST SOURCES: Milk Fruits and Vegetables Some foods Other liquids can also provide it such as coffee, tea, and soft drinks, but they are not always the best choices.

15 EXCESS NUTRIENTS Too much of any one nutrient is not good for you Excess energy nutrients (Carbs, fats, and proteins) can lead to an unhealthy weight gain Excess of some vitamins and minerals can lead to toxicity (poisoning) and other complications

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