1 Biology 212: Anatomy and Physiology II The Reproductive System References: Saladin, KS: Anatomy and Physiology, The Unity of Form and Function 8 th (2018). Required reading before beginning this lab: Chapters 27 and 28 INTRODUCTION: The function of the human reproductive system is somewhat unique. Rather than sustaining the individual, its function is to perpetuate the species and it is the only system in which the two sexes have different organs. The ovaries and testicles are the only organs in which cell division by meiosis occurs to produce oocytes (eggs) and sperm (collectively called gametes) with only half the full number of chromosomes found in other cells. They have 23 chromosomes, termed haploid by geneticists, while all of the other cells in your body contain 46 chromosomes, referred to as diploid. When the two haploid gametes (egg and sperm) fuse, the resulting zygote is again diploid with 46 chromosomes arranged as 23 pairs. Producing those gametes, of course, is only part of the function of the reproductive system. The sperm must be transported to where they can be ejaculated into the reproductive system of the female; they must reach the proper location to fertilize the oocyte; the resulting zygote must reach the uterus and implant itself there; pregnancy must be maintained for nine months; and childbirth must successfully occur. Embryologically, the human reproductive system is one of the last systems to begin formation, and hence one of the last to become mature. In fact, it is the only human system that does not mature and reach full function until ten or more years after birth. In both sexes, it develops as three parts: a) The testicles (testes) or ovaries, collectively called gonads; b) A series of ducts or tubes; and c) The external genitalia. The male reproductive system is probably the more simple of the two. Sperm are produced in the testicles, then they mature and are temporarily stored in the epididymis. During ejaculation they are transported through the vas deferens by contractions of smooth muscle and through the urethra in the penis via contractions of skeletal muscle. Specialized cells in the testes also produce testosterone. Seminal vesicles and the prostate gland secrete the fluids which combine with the sperm to form the semen. The penis contains erectile bodies that harden when they fill with blood, allowing the semen to be deposited deeply within the vagina of the female during intercourse. Millions of sperm are produced every day under the stimulus of follicle stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, and if ejaculation does not occur they are reabsorbed by the epididymis or simply lost into the urine. The female reproductive system is functionally more complex. The ovaries produce oocytes (eggs) and secrete estrogen and progesterone which stimulate changes in the uterus and other organs in preparation for fertilization and pregnancy. At ovulation, one (or occasionally two) oocytes are released from the surface of the ovary and transported into the uterine tubes (also called oviducts or Fallopian tubes). During sexual intercourse, sperm which are deposited in the vagina are transported through the uterus and uterine tubes to where one of them can fertilize the oocyte. The resulting zygote and early embryo is then transported by the uterine tube to the uterus, where it implants for continued development. The placenta develops to nourish and support the growing fetus before being expelled during childbirth.
2 Unlike that of the male, the female reproductive system has a distinct cyclical pattern to its function. Under the stimulation of follicle stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, only one or two oocytes are produced each month within follicles of the ovaries, which also produce estrogen. Luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary gland helps trigger ovulation of mature oocytes, after which some of the remaining follicle cells develop into a separate endocrine tissue called the corpus luteum that secrete progesterone as well as some estrogen. If fertilization and subsequent pregnancy do not occur, the corpus luteum stops its secretion of progesterone and the inner lining of the uterus, where the embryo would have implanted, is sloughed off during menstruation. Another significant difference between the male and female reproductive systems is the sudden stop in reproductive function which occurs in woman at menopause as the pituitary stops secreting its stimulatory hormones. The reproductive systems of men, in contrast, continue to function throughout life. Before you begin this exercise, be sure you have a moderately good understanding of how the male and female reproductive systems work: formation and transport of sperm and oocytes, sexual arousal and intercourse, ejaculation, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and childbirth. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the end of this exercise, students should be able to: Identify the organs of the human reproductive system, both male and female Describe the functions of these reproductive organs Describe the histology of the testis, epididymis, penis, ovary, and uterine tube Correlate the physiological phases of the ovary with those of the uterus Describe the pathway of sperm from their production in the testicles until they may fertilize an oocyte, and the pathway that the resulting embryo will follow to the uterus Identify the organs of the reproductive system on living humans GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Exercise 1: Using Figures 27.7, 27.9, and in your Saladin text, we will identify organs of the male reproductive system on the isolated models (not the full torso models) of male reproductive organs in a sequence that follows the pathway of sperm. Remember: right and left refer to the person (or parts of a person) being examined, never the observer s right or left. Identify the testis or testicle in the skin-covered sac called the scrotum. A part of the scrotum is shown on each half of the model, and a part of the medial partition between the testes is shown on the right side. The testis on the left side of the model is shown with its surrounding membranes removed, exposing the tunica albuginea that surrounds it. The epididymis can be seen superior and medial to the testis on the left side. It is held tightly against the testis by a complicated set of membranes that surround both organs. The pink vas deferens can be seen attached to the inferior, medial tail of the epididymis.
3 Questions for discussion based on your reading of Chapter 27 before coming to lab: What artery supplies blood to the testicle on each side? The testicles develop within the abdomen of the fetus, then descend into the scrotum. When does this occur? What would happen to sperm production if this descent did not occur normally? What changes occur in sperm as they pass through the epididymis? What would happen if the epididymis could no longer carry out this function? Next, find the spermatic cord on this model. It is a complicated structure that contains the vas deferens, a network of veins and arteries, a nerve, and some other structures. The spermatic cord continues upward and passes through the inguinal canal, a reinforced opening through the lower abdominal wall. On the right side, parts of the abdominal wall are removed so that the passage of the spermatic cord through the inguinal canal can be followed. The sperm-transporting structure within the spermatic cord is the vas deferens, also known as the ductus deferens. Trace this muscular tube from its origin on the epididymis, through the spermatic cord, through the inguinal canal and into the abdominal cavity. From the inguinal canal, trace it across the superior surface of the bladder, over the ureter (another pink tube) and down the posterior surface of the bladder to where it joins with the seminal vesicle. Now split the model in half and remove the left side of the bladder and attached structures. The seminal vesicles can again be located on the posterior surface of the bladder. Each seminal vesicle is a multi-lobed gland whose duct joins with the vas deferens. Inferior to the seminal vesicle and bladder, find the prostate gland. Note that the urethra passes through it. The tiny ejaculatory duct does not show up well on this model, but may be seen in Fig It originates where the seminal vesicle and vas deferens merge and is contained within the prostate gland. Its termination in the urethra is shown inside the prostate gland. Questions for discussion based on your reading of Chapter 27 before coming to lab: Which tube is cut during a vasectomy? Where is this tube most easily isolated to be identified and cut? What happens to the sperm after a vasectomy, since their movement through this tube is blocked? Besides this tube, what other structures are found in the human spermatic cord? What percentage of human semen consists of fluids produced by the prostate and seminal vesicles? What percentage of it consists of sperm? What do the fluids produced by the seminal vesicles and prostate contain? Where are sperm "stored" before ejaculation?
4 Identify the three parts of the urethra on this model. The prostatic urethra runs through the prostate gland. The membranous urethra is a short segment between the prostate gland and the base of the penis. The spongy or penile urethra is the segment of the urethra inside the penis. Note the position of the base of the penis near the prostate gland. The spongy urethra traverses the entire penis through a column of spongy erectile tissue called the corpus spongiosum. The penis originates near the prostate gland. Notice from Figure in your Saladin text that the proximal root of the penis runs through muscles and ligaments, and only the distal, pendulous shaft of the penis extends from the surface of the body. The expanded distal end of the penis is called its glans, which is covered by the prepuce or foreskin (commonly removed in infant males by circumcision). During erection, the erectile bodies fill with blood and cause the shaft of the penis to align with the internal, more proximal root - notice in Figure and on the model how this would occur. Examine the penis in cross section by putting the two detachable pelvic pieces together with the shaft of the penis removed. Three columns of the erectile tissue are visible. The inferior one, containing the urethra, is the corpus spongiosum ( spongy body ). The two superior columns are named the corpora (that s the pleural of corpus) cavernosa ( cavernous bodies ). Follow these into the shaft of the penis, noting how the corpus spongiosum contains the urethra and expands to form the glans. Exercise 2: Explain to other members of your lab group where and how sperm are produced within the testis, and the parts of the testis through which they must pass to get to the epididymis. If other members of your lab group are not explaining this correctly, be sure to help them understand. You will only hurt them and yourself if you let them give a poor explanation. Do not give up until every single person in the lab group can do this from memory. Exercise 3: Examine the torso model in which male genitalia can be inserted or removed. With these in place, identify each of the structures described in Exercise 1 above. Note the location of the bladder and reproductive structures near it relative to the intestines and other abdominal organs. Exercise 4: In the space below, trace the pathway of sperm from where it is produced in the testes to where it exits through the glans of the penis during ejaculation. One possible difficulty you might encounter is the role of the seminal vesicle. Sperm never pass through or enter this gland. It merely produces a mucus secretion that contributes to the formation of semen.
5 HISTOLOGY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Exercise 5: Under low power of the microscope, examine slide #12. This shows a portion of a testis. Identify the tunica albuginea and connective tissue septa that separate the testis into lobules (see Figure 27.9 in Saladin). Notice most of the testis consists of seminiferous tubules that have been cut in many different orientations as they coil within each lobule. Switch to high power and examine the seminiferous tubules (Figure 27.9 in your Saladin text). Note the large cells on the outside of each tubule, with smaller cells toward the center. As sperm develop and mature they move from the outside, just deep to the tunica albuginea, to the inside of each tubule. In most of the tubules you should be able to identify the tails of sperm. These sperm are almost ready to be released into to lumen, and you may be able to see some that have already been released. Identify interstitial cells (i.e. Leydig cells) in the spaces between the seminiferous tubules. These are the cells that respond to LH to produce testosterone. Questions for discussion based on your reading of Chapter 27 before coming to lab: Development of sperm in the seminiferous tubules is stimulated by which hormone from the pituitary gland? Secretion of testosterone by the interstitial cells of the testis is stimulated by which hormone from the pituitary gland? Exercise 6: Under low power of the microscope, examine slide #29 of the epididymis. Note the appearance of many tubules in the center - this is actually a single tube tightly coiled up and thus cut many times on this slide. Superficially, note the dense irregular connective tissue which surrounds the epididymis. This contains many blood vessels, reflecting the large blood supply that this organ has. Switch to higher power and examine one or two of the sectioned tubules. These are lined by a pseudostratified columnar epithelium supported by a looser connective tissue in which many smaller blood vessels are evident. In some regions of the tubules you will note sperm. Question for discussion based on your reading of Chapter 27 before coming to lab: What is the function of the epididymis?
6 Exercise 7: Examine slide #27 of the penis (from a nonhuman primate) under low power. The penis is covered with skin the epidermis is a cornified/keratinized stratified squamous epithelium while the dermis is formed by a dense irregular connective tissue. In most of the slides, the penis still has its prepuce (foreskin), so another layer of stratified squamous epithelium appears deeper within the organ: be sure you understand how this occurs (Figure 5.1 in your Saladin text describes the sectioned appearance of three-dimensional structures, and Figure may help). Within the section of the penis on this slide, identify three erectile bodies: two side-by-side corpora cavernosa and a corpus spongiosum containing the urethra, which appears as a tube lined by epithelium. Note: In some slides the two corpora cavernosa are not separated and appear as a single structure, but if you divided the single corpus cavernosum into two side-by-side erectile bodies you would have the appearance of the human penis. Note the many small blood vessels (arterioles and venules) that surround the erectile bodies. These, as you would expect, are involved in the flow of blood into and out of the erectile bodies during erection. Under high power, examine the epithelium of the urethra. This is a stratified columnar epithelium, one of the few places where it is found in the human body. Note the deeper cuboidal cells, with columnar cells facing toward the lumen of the urethra. (Review Chapter 5 in your Saladin text if you do not understand what this type of epithelium should look like). Also examine the corpus cavernosum under high power and note the large number of arterioles. Questions for discussion based on your reading of Chapter 27 before coming to lab: What causes the erectile bodies of the penis to fill with blood during erection? Why does the erect penis assume the angle it does (pointing somewhat superiorly)? GROSS ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Exercise 8: Use the independent plastic model of the female pelvis (not the torso model) for this section. Figures 28.1, 28.3, and 28.8 in your Saladin text will serve as references. Identify the uterus on this model note its position between the pelvic bone and the rectum, and note how its superior surface projects superiorly into the abdominal cavity. Although it doesn t show well on this model, realize from Figure 28.1 that the superior surface of the uterus is covered by a layer of the peritoneum which lines that cavity. Identify the ovaries on each side. Two tubular structures appear to connect the ovary to the uterus on this model. The inferior one is a ligament that helps support the ovary. The pink/red one, with the expanded end near the ovary, is the uterine tube, also called the oviduct or Fallopian tube. The expanded, funnel-like end of the uterine tube, which partly surrounds the ovary, is called its infundibulum. Finger-like fimbriae can be seen attached to the edge of the infundibulum. Proximal to this (nearer the uterus) is the ampulla, then the narrower isthmus of the oviduct that penetrates the wall of the uterus.
7 On the midsagittal view of one-half of the model, locate the rectum, anus, urinary bladder, urethra and urethral opening and note their positions relative to the uterus, vagina and vaginal opening. Examine the uterus which consists of three parts. The fundus of the uterus is superior to the entry point of the uterine tubes. The middle, and largest region of the uterus is the body. The third, most inferior part of the uterus is the narrow cervix which projects inferiorly into the vagina. The recessed grooves between the cervix and vaginal wall are called fornices (singular = fornix). Find the position of the anterior fornix and the posterior fornix on this model. Internally, note that the uterus shows two different textures and colors. The thinner striated zone on the inside represents the endometrium. External to this is a thicker, lighter red layer called the myometrium. The smooth, pink outermost layer is its serosa. Most of the time, the uterus lies in the position shown on this model - tipped anteriorly to rest on the superior surface of the urinary bladder. It assumes a more upright position during orgasm and during pregnancy. Between the uterus and bladder is a peritoneum-lined vesicouterine pouch (not open on the model.) Between the uterus and rectum, find the rectouterine pouch. These two pouches are of medical significance because they are "low points" for the drainage of abdominal fluids and infections. Reassemble the model, placing the inner piece inside the rest of the pelvis so you can examine the external genitalia. Note both the urethra and vagina open into a narrow space called the vestibule, while the anus opens much more posteriorly. Lateral to the vestibule are two folds of skin on each side. The inner, smaller folds are named the labia minora ( small lips ). Lateral to them are thicker folds called the labia majora ( large lips ). At the anterior part of the vestibule between the two labia minora, identify the clitoris. Like the corpora cavernosa of the penis in the male, it consists of erectile tissue that fills with blood during sexual excitement. Although it is not shown on this model, you should realize that the visible glans of the clitoris is only part of that organ examine Figure 28.8b in your Saladin text and note that two large crura (singular = crux ) extend internally on either side of the vagina. Near the opening of the vagina on the model, a small, horizontal fold of mucous membrane represents the hymen. The vestibule, labia majora and minora, urethral and vaginal orifices, hymen, and clitoris are collectively called the vulva or the pudenda. Exercise 9: Place the female genitalia into the appropriate torso model. Identify the structures described in Exercise 8 above. Note the location of the bladder, uterus, ovaries, and oviducts relative to the intestines (including the rectum) and other abdominal organs. Exercise 10: Explain to other members of your lab group the pathway that sperm will follow from the vagina to where fertilization will occur, the pathway that the resulting embryo will follow to the uterus, and how it will embed itself within the endometrium. Be sure to help other members of your lab group understand this if necessary. Don t give up until everyone in the lab group can do this from memory.
8 HISTOLOGY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Exercise 11: Examine slide #40 of the ovary under low power. This slide is not from a human - it is from an animal that gives birth to many young at a time since it shows many follicles developing simultaneously. Identify its cortex, medulla, and tunica albuginea. Identify follicles in different stages of development, including large fluid-filled mature follicles. Identify a corpus luteum, in which cells have filled in the central region of the follicle. Exercise 12: Examine the model representing half of an ovary with different stages of development of the follicles. At the middle bottom is a mature or vesicular follicle that is in the process of ovulation: rupturing to release its egg, or oocyte (sometimes, although not quite correctly, called the ovum). To the left of the mature follicle is a large, yellow, scalloped structure, a corpus luteum ( yellow body ). It formed from a previously ovulated mature follicle. Between the mature follicle and corpus luteum is one of three corpus albicans ( white body ). These are the remnant scars of previous corpora lutea (that s the plural of corpus luteum ). To the left of the mature follicle are three medium-sized, immature, secondary follicles that may someday become mature follicles. With the aid of Figure 28.2 in your Saladin text, be sure you can identify these structures. Exercise 13: Examine slide #19 of the uterine tube (also called the oviduct or Fallopian tube) under low power. Note this is a tube with very a very thick muscularis, within which many blood vessels are easily identified. Notice how the mucosa is thrown into very long folds extending far into the lumen. Under high power, examine the mucosa of the uterine tube. The epithelium varies from simple squamous to simple columnar in form, with the latter representing more active regions of the organ. You may or may not be able to identify brush-like projections extending from the apical surface of the columnar cells - these are the cilia which help propel sperm toward the oocyte and later help propel the oocyte or developing embryo toward the uterus (see Figure 28.4 in your Saladin text). Identify the connective tissue lamina propria within the folds. Exercise 14: Explain to other members of your lab group the pathway that sperm will follow from the vagina to where fertilization will occur, the pathway that the resulting embryo will follow to the uterus, and how it will embed itself within the endometrium. Be sure to help other members of your lab group understand this if necessary - you only hurt them and yourself by accepting a poor explanation. Do not give up until every single person in the lab group can do this from memory.
9 ENDOCRINE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Exercise 15: Explain to the other members of your lab group the sequence of follicular development in the ovary, from a primordial follicle, through ovulation and the formation of a corpus luteum, to the corpus albicans. Include hormones from the pituitary gland that stimulate this process and hormones that are produced by the follicle and corpus luteum, including the functions of the latter. Be sure to help other members of your lab group understand this if necessary. Don t give up until every single person in the lab group can do this from memory. Exercise 16: Using this figure (similar to figure Figure in your Saladin text) which correlates the phases of the ovarian cycle and the phases of the menstrual cycle: happening in the ovary during its follicular phase. happening in the ovary during ovulation. happening in the ovary during its luteal phase. happening in the uterus during its menstrual phase. happening in the uterus during its proliferative phase. happening in the uterus during its secretory phase.
10 Questions for discussion based on your reading of Chapter 27 before coming to lab: The early stages of follicle development, before ovulation, occur under the stimulation of which hormone from the anterior pituitary gland? During which part of the menstrual cycle is this occurring? The conversion of a follicle to a corpus luteum, after ovulation, occurs under the stimulation of which hormone from the anterior pituitary gland? During which part of the menstrual cycle is this occurring? If the oocyte is fertilized by sperm, where (which part of which organ) in the female reproductive system will this occur? During which part of the menstrual cycle is this most likely to occur? REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF THE LIVING HUMAN Exercise 17: This exercise will require you to take off most of your clothing, so you should obviously do this exercise at home. On yourself or another person, identify the location of the bladder, urethra, ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina, testes, spermatic cord, seminal vesicles, and prostate. Obviously, you (or the person you are examining) will not have all of these organs, but you may be able to note their location on another person of the other sex. Use a pen (preferably water soluble) to draw these structures on the skin. If you are female (or if you have a willing female partner) identify your labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, clitoris, urethral orifice, and vaginal orifice you may need to use a mirror to do this on yourself. Notice that pubic hair grows on the lateral surfaces of the labia majora but not on their medial surface or on the labia minora. Use a finger to feel the transition from the keratinized (dry) form of stratified squamous epithelium on the skin to the nonkeratinized (wet) form as you enter the vagina. If you are male (or if you have a willing male partner) identify the scrotum, noticing that it is thin with little connective tissue deep to the skin. Feel the testes and epididymis on both sides. Identify the location of the inguinal canal, which runs inside the inguinal ligament. Identify the shaft of the penis and its glans. If you were not circumcised, you will still have a prepuce or foreskin. With the penis erect, identify the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum of the shaft and follow them back to where you can also feel the root of the penis posterior to the scrotum. Identify the external urethral orifice.
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Functions of male Reproductive System: produce gametes deliver gametes protect and support gametes Spermatogenesis occurs in the testes after puberty. From the testes they are deposited into the epididymas
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins? A) LH
The Male and Female Internal Genitalia Dr Oluwadiya Kehinde www.oluwadiya.com Overview The reproductive role of the male is to produce sperm, deliver them to the female Primary sex organs are the gonads
What are the main functions of the male reproductive system? 1. Produce sperm 2. Deposit sperm into the female 3. Provide a pathway for the removal of urine Where is sperm produced? -In the 2 testes What
Level I - Lesson 8: Synopsis: This computer session will allow students to learn more about the human reproductive system and the changes their body will go through during puberty. Objectives: Students
21 Female Reproductive System I. Introduction to the Female Reproductive System Concept: The female reproductive system produces ova, secretes sex hormones, receives spermatozoa from the male, and provides
SISTEMA REPRODUCTOR (LA IDEA FIJA) How male and female reproductive systems differentiate The reproductive organs and how they work How gametes are produced and fertilized Pregnancy, stages of development,
HUMAN REPRODUCTION SYSTEM The human reproductive system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During this process, the male inserts his erect penis into the female's vagina and
Chapter 22 The Reproductive System (I) An Overview of Reproductive Physiology o The Male Reproductive System o The Female Reproductive System 22.1 Reproductive System Overview Reproductive system = all
8546d_c01_1-42 6/25/02 4:32 PM Page 38 mac48 Mac 48: 420_kec: 38 Cat Dissection DISSECTION 8: URINARY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS Typically, the urinary and reproductive systems are studied together, because
The Repr duct ve System Function: producing offspring Anatomy of male reproductive system Location: The reproductive organs are classified as external and internal genitalia. The external genitalia are
REPRODUCCIÓN La idea fija How male and female reproductive systems differentiate The reproductive organs and how they work How gametes are produced and fertilized Pregnancy, stages of development, birth
Female and Male Reproductive Systems Reproductive System: Organs that make possible the production of offspring. Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive System: Words to be familiar with ESTROGEN
63 Lecture Outline: Reproductive System Hole s HAP [Chapters 22, 23] I. Introduction A. Primary sex characteristics Male Female B. Secondary sex characteristics Male: 9 14 yrs. Reproductive development
LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 8 The Human Urogenital Systems. TEXT ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 8-1 through 8-16. LESSON OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 8-1. Define urogenital systems.
Blok 11: Genital and Urinary Tract Diseases 18 Urinary System 19 Male Genital System 20 Female Genital System 18 Urinary system You should be able to: 1. Describe the structures and associated functions
BIOLOGY OF HUMANS Concepts, Applications, and Issues Fifth Edition Judith Goodenough Betty McGuire 17 Reproductive Systems Lecture Presentation Anne Gasc Hawaii Pacific University and University of Hawaii
Endocrine and Reproductive Systems Chapter 39: Biology II The Endocrine System Made up of glands that release their products into the bloodstream These products broadcast messages throughout the body Chemicals
Human Growth and Development 6th Grade Male Click here for teacher notes Ground Rules Use proper terminology. (Do not use slang.) Participate seriously. Share today s information with your parents. (Do
Laboratory 9 Cat Dissection II Respiratory Urinary/Reproductive Systems Lab Schedule for Rest of Semester Cat dissection labs Dissection II (today) Respiratory (Ex. 57 in Hole) Human Reproductive Systems
21-1 21-2 Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Genital Tract In males the testes, held outside the body in the scrotum (optimum temp of about 35 0 C), produce sperm. Sperm mature in coiled tubes
9.4 Regulating the Reproductive System The Reproductive System to unite a single reproductive cell from a female with a single reproductive cell from a male Both male and female reproductive systems include
Reproductive system Presented by: Ms. Priya Reproductive system Female reproductive system has two functions: produce egg cells to protect and nourish the offspring (baby) until birth. Male reproductive
27 The Reproductive System PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College Lincoln, Nebraska Introduction The reproductive system is designed to perpetuate the species
The Reproductive System: Male, Ch 23 Outline of class lecture After studying the male reproductive system you should be able to: 1. Define the purpose of reproduction and identify the general organs of
Chapter 46 Animal Reproduc5on BIOL 223 Sexual reproduc-on Asexual and Sexual Reproduc5on crea5on of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete (sperm) and female gamete (egg) to form a zygote Asexual reproduc-on
AP Biology Ch. 46 - ANIMAL REPRODUCTION Using only what you already know (you cannot look up anything) complete the chart below. I. Overview of Animal Reproduction A. Both asexual and sexual reproduction
Reproduction Puberty stage of growth and development where males and females become capable of producing offspring. Time of physical and emotional changes. Female *occurs between ages 8 -- 15 *estrogen
Uterine prolapse & Fistulas Raja Nursing Instructor RN, DCHN, Post RN. BSc.N 31/03/2016 Objectives 1. Review the anatomy & physiology of female reproductive system 2. Discuss the causes, pathophysiology,
MOCK TEST I (HUMAN REPRODUCTION) 1. In human transfer of sperms into female genital tract is called as 1) Fertilization 2) Implantation 3) Insemination 4) Gestation 2. In male human scrotum maintains the
You need to be able to: describe spermatogenesis (How is sperm made?) describe the anatomy of a sperm describe the parts and function of semen and the glands that contribute to it How is sperm made? Spermatogenesis