Name: Block: Date: PACKET #8 Unit 3: Energy Transfer, Part II: Cellular Respiration

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1 Name: Block: Date: PACKET #8 Unit 3: Energy Transfer, Part II: Cellular Respiration Reading: BSCS Text chapters 4, 5, and 2.8. Objectives: By the conclusion of this unit the student will be able to: Topic 3: Cellular Respiration 12. Write and explain the chemical equation that summarizes cellular respiration (5.1). 13. Describe the structure and function of the mitochondrion (5. 4). 14. Describe the events and location of stage 1 of cellular respiration (glycolysis) (5.2, 5.3). 15. Describe the events and location of stage 2 of cellular respiration (Krebs cycle) (5.2, 5.5). 16. Describe the events and location of stage 3 of cellular respiration (electron transport chain). (5.2, 5.6) 17. Calculate the total number of ATP molecules produced (net) from one glucose molecule by adding together the ATP produced at each stage of cell respiration. 18. Describe the events of anaerobic respiration (lactic acid and alcohol fermentation) (5.3). 19. Explain the process of cellular respiration in bacteria (5.6). 20. Explain the role of each of the following in cellular respiration: a. Glucose b. Pyruvic Acid (Pyruvate) c. NAD+, NADH d. FAD, FADH2 e. Hydrogen ion f. Acetyl Co-A g. Carbon Dioxide h. Water i. Oxygen j. Electron transport chain k. Cytochromes l. ATP Synthase 21. Explain how photosynthesis and cellular respiration can be seen as two halves of one reaction (a cycle) (5.7). 22. Describe how cellular respiration is involved in heat production (5.9). 23. Explain the role of leptin in energy regulation (p. 149). 1

2 Key Terms: Cellular respiration Aerobic Anaerobic Glycolysis NAD + NADH FAD +2 FADH2 Krebs cycle Electron transport system (resp.) Pyruvic acid (Pyruvate) Fermentation Lactic acid fermentation Alcohol fermentation Mitochondria Mitochondrial matrix Intermembrane space Cytochromes Facultative aerobe Obligate anaerobe Obligate aerobe PFK (phosphofructokinase) Leptin 2

3 Daley Biology H Topic 3: Cellular Respiration as a Chemical Reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 REACTANTS enzymes 6CO2 + 6H2O PRODUCTS Objective 12: Explain the chemical equation that summarizes cellular respiration (5.1). Figure 1: Cellular Respiration as an Exergonic Reaction! O O O 3

4 Objective 13: Describe the structure and function of the mitochondrion (5.4). Figure 2 : Structure of a Mitochondrion Figure 3: Stages of Aerobic Cellular Respiration (burning glucose in the presence of O2) 4

5 Daley Biology H Figure 4: Aerobic Cellular Respiration! 5

6 Objective 14: Describe the events and location of stage 1 of cellular respiration (glycolysis) (5.2, 5.3). Objective 15: Describe the events and location of stage 2 of cellular respiration (Krebs cycle) (5.2, 5.5). Objective 16: Describe the events and location of stage 3 of cellular respiration (ETC)(5.2, 5.6). 6

7 Figure 5: Cellular Respiration Electron Transport Chain In the ETC: 1 NADH can be used to make ATP; 1FADH2 can be used to make ATP Objective 17: Calculate the total number of ATP molecules produced (net) from one glucose molecule by adding together the ATP produced at each stage of cell respiration. Figure 6: ATP Production in Each Stage of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

8 Aerobic Cellular Respiration Summary Step 1: Name Location Molecules used Number of carbons in glucose Molecules formed Step 2: Name Location Molecules used Number of carbons in acetyl-coa Molecules formed Step 1.5: Name Location Molecules used Number of carbons in pyruvate Molecules formed Step 3: Name Location Molecules used Molecules formed Account for where each of the following molecules is used or formed: (draw arrows to indicate where the atoms in the reactants ended up in the products. Hydrogen has been done for you to illustrate.) C6H12O6 + 6O2 enzymes 6CO2 + 6H2O 8

9 Objective 18: Describe the events of anaerobic respiration (lactic acid and alcohol fermentation) (5.3). Figure 7: Anaerobic Cellular Respiration (Burning of glucose in the absence of O2 gas) 9

10 Daley Biology H Figure 8:! 10

11 Objective 18: Explain the process of cellular respiration in bacteria (5.6). Objective 19: Explain the role of each of the following in cellular respiration (vocabulary list review): a. Glucose b. Pyruvic acid (pyruvate) c. NAD+, NADH d. FAD, FADH 2 e. Hydrogen ions f. Acetyl Co-A g. Carbon dioxide h. Water i. Oxygen gas j. Electron transport chain k. ATP Synthase More review: A Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration What kind of organism completes this process? Is oxygen used? Are mitochondria necessary? Exergonic or Endergonic (net)? Glucose formed or used? Besides ATP, what molecules are formed (net)? Is there an Electron Transport Chain? How many ATP molecules are formed (net)? AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION (ANAEROBIC) ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION (ANAEROBIC) 11

12 Objective 19: Explain how photosynthesis and cellular respiration can be seen as two halves of one reaction (a cycle). A Comparison of Photosynthesis and Aerobic Cellular Respiration Cellular Location What kind of organisms do this? Is light necessary? Balanced and most accurate equation (include enzymes, etc) PHOTOSYNTHESIS AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION Exergonic or Endergonic (net) Picture of associated energy graph (show both with and without enzymes present) Glucose formed or used? Oxygen molecules formed or used? Carbon dioxide molecules formed or used? Water formed or used (net)? In the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), where are the H + ions from? In the ETC, what location are the H + ions pumped towards? In the ETC, where are the electrons from? What is the last electron acceptor in the ETC? Other than ATP, what molecule is formed as a result of the ETC? Is there any net production of ATP? If so, how many molecules of ATP? What are the names of the stages or parts? What role does membrane surface area play?

13 Objective 20: Describe how cellular respiration is involved in heat production (5.9). Figure 9: Mitochondrial Uncoupling: Non-Shivering Thermogenesis (Heat Production) Objective 21: Explain the role of leptin in energy regulation (p. 149). 13

14 Cellular Respiration Practice Questions 1) Which of the following best describes the flow of energy in cells? a) ADP to ATP to cell work b) Food directly to cell work c) ATP to food d) Food to ATP to cell work 2) Which statement best describes the role of mitochondria in cell respiration? a) Cell respiration occurs outside the mitochondria. b) Oxygen is not consumed in mitochondria. c) Aerobic respiration takes place in mitochondria. d) Little ATP is formed in mitochondria. 3) What is the carrier of glucose to our cells? a) liver c.) bloodstream b) adrenaline d.) insulin 4) Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with the process of glycolysis? a) An agent that reacts with oxygen and depletes its concentration in the cell b) An agent that binds to pyruvate and inactivates it c) An agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not broken down d) An agent that reacts with NADH and oxidizes it to NAD + e) An agent that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transport chain Some water, a small amount of soil, a few aquatic plants, and a fish were placed in a large bottle. The bottle was sealed to prevent the exchange of gases and other materials between its contents and the outside. The bottle was then placed in a window to receive light during the day. After a week, both the plants and the fish appeared healthy. 5) Refer to the information above. Do the plants use carbon dioxide? a) No, carbon dioxide is solely a waste product of animal respiration. b) No, plants release carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. c) Yes, all organisms use carbon dioxide during cell respiration. d) Yes, carbon dioxide is used during photosynthesis. 6) Refer to the information above. Do the plants use oxygen? a) No, plants produce but do not use oxygen. b) Yes, plants use oxygen in photosynthesis. c) Yes, plants use oxygen at all times in cell respiration. d) Yes, but only at night after photosynthesis has stopped. 7) Refer to the information above. Does the fish use oxygen? a) Yes, oxygen is used 24 hours a day in cell respiration. b) Yes, but only at night after photosynthesis has stopped. c) Yes, but only in the daytime while photosynthesis is occurring. d) No, the animal lives by carrying on fermentation. 14

15 8) Refer to the information above. Do the plants produce carbon dioxide? a) Yes, but only at night when the plants can no longer carry on photosynthesis. b) Yes, carbon dioxide is produced all the time as a result of cell respiration. c) No, carbon dioxide is a waste product of animals only. d) No, plants take in only the waste products exhaled by animals. 9) A young relative of yours has never had much energy. He goes to a doctor for help and is sent to the hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactic acid than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanation of his condition? a) His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane. b) His cells cannot move NADH from glycolysis into the mitochondria. c) His cells contain something that inhibits oxygen use in his mitochondria. d) His cells lack the enzyme in glycolysis that forms pyruvate. 10) During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence? a) food citric acid cycle ATP NAD+ b) food NADH electron transport chain oxygen c) glucose pyruvate ATP oxygen d) glucose ATP electron transport chain NADH e) food glycolysis citric acid cycle NADH ATP 11) Assume a mitochondrion contains 58 NADH and 19 FADH2. If all of the 77 electron carriers were used, approximately how many ATP molecules could be generated in the ETC? a) 36 b) 77 c) 173 d) 212 e) ) If you were able to stop the process of cellular respiration after completing electron transport but prior to the production of ATP, you would find the ph of a mitochondrion to be at its lowest a) In the cytoplasm. b) On the outer membrane. c) In the intermembrane space. d) In the mitochondrial matrix. e) On the inner membrane. 13) A child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from skeletal muscle cells. However, the muscles still function. Physicians find that a) The muscles contain large amounts of carbon dioxide following even mild physical exercise. b) The muscles require extremely high levels of oxygen to function. c) The muscles require extremely high levels of carbon dioxide to function. d) The muscle cells cannot split glucose to pyruvate. e) The muscles contain large amounts of lactic acid following even mild physical exercise. 15

16 14) The Krebs cycle uses acetyl-coa as a starting compound. How many molecules of carbon dioxide are produced in 100 turns of the Krebs cycle (assume ONE acetyl-coa molecule is added per turn of the Krebs cycle)? a) 100 b) 200 c) 300 d) 400 e) ) The primary function of the mitochondrion is the production of ATP. To carry out this function, the mitochondrion must have all of the following EXCEPT: a) the membrane-bound electron transport chain b) proton pumps embedded in the inner membrane c) enzymes for glycolysis d) enzymes for the Krebs cycle e) ATP synthase embedded in the inner membrane 16) Mitochondrial Uncoupling allows a cell to a) make more ATP b) waste energy in the form of heat c) harness energy in the form of heat d) use ATP more efficiently 17) A mitochondrial uncoupler a) keeps H + ions in the inter membrane space b) keeps H + ions in the mitochondrial matrix space c) lets H + ions in to the inter membrane space d) lets H + ions in to the mitochondrial matrix space 18) Leptin is released by: a) fat cells b) neuron cells c) stomach cells d) muscle cells e) blood cells 19) Leptin functions to: a) Tell the fat cells to break down fats for use b) Tell the brain the stomach is empty, so eat c) Tell the fat cells to make lipids to store d) Tell the brain the stomach is full, so stop eating 16

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