Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 1

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 1"

Transcription

1 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 1 Basal Ganglia OUTLINE- I. Structures included in the basal ganglia II. III. IV. Skeleton diagram of Basal Ganglia Loops with cortex Similarity with Cerebellar Loops Movement disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction EMG basis of rigidity Segmental and Long Loop Circuits Why are the basal ganglia so easily damaged? V. Chemical-Anatomy model of basal ganglia dysfunction VI. Proposals about normal function of the basal ganglia Elemental and Complex deficits associated with step-tracking New words used during the lecture: dystonia musculoram deformans MPTP Kernicterus jaundice bilirubin tardive dyskinesia lecithin

2 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 2 I. Structures included in the Basal Ganglia (Figure 1) The Basal Ganglia consist of 4 major subcortical structures 1. neostriatum = caudate and putamen (input nuclei) 2. substantia nigra = 2 subdivisions: pars compacta and pars reticulata 3. subthalamic nucleus 4. globus pallidus = 2 subdivisions: external segment and internal segment (Note: internal segment and pars reticulata = output nuclei) Functionally the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra appears equivalent to the internal segment of the globus pallidus. However, like the caudate and putamen, a fiber bundle separates these two nuclei. II. Skeleton diagram of Basal Ganglia Loops with the Cerebral Cortex (Figure 2) A- a set of cortical areas project to a localized region of the neostriatum (e.g., prefrontal cortical regions tend to innervate the caudate; primary motor and somatic sensory tend to innervate the putamen) B- localized regions of the neostriatum have topographic projections upon the output nuclei (e.g., parts of the caudate tend to innervate the pars reticulata; parts of the putamen tend to innervate the internal segment of the globus pallidus) C- each of the output nuclei have topographic projections upon selected thalamic nuclei (e.g., parts of GPi project upon subdivisions of VL thalamus; parts of the pars reticulata project upon VA and MD) g primary motor cortex -> putamen ->GPi -> VL -> motor cortex prefrontal -> caudate -> pars reticulata -> VA/MD -> prefrontal D- each thalamic nucleus innervates a distinct cortical area. Multiple cortical areas may contribute to the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but only selected cortical areas receive the effects of basal ganglia processing There are at least 5 different functional loops that connect the Basal Ganglia with the Cerebral Cortex: (examine the open and closed loop components) 1. Motor Loops (including the primary motor cortex and SMA) 2. Oculomotor (Frontal Eye Fields) 3. Prefrontal 4. Orbital frontal 5. Anterior cingulate 6. Inferotemporal (recently described) Note: Basal Ganglia loops with Cerebral Cortex are in many respects similar to the Cerebellar loops with Cerebral Cortex (Figures 3&4). There are multiple functional loops that connect the cerebellum with areas of cerebral cortex: 1. Motor Loops (including the primary motor and lateral premotor cortex) 2. Oculomotor (Frontal Eye Fields) 3. Prefrontal 4. Posterior Parietal (under investigation) Note: Features Common to Basal Ganglia and Cerebellar Loops

3 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 3 1. Both cerebellar and basal ganglia circuits have an input that does not change in a moment by moment fashion with behavior (i.e., climbing fiber input to cerebellar cortex, and SNpc input to neostriatum) 2. The cerebellar and basal ganglia loops that are concerned with the control of limb movement are somatotopically organized (body maps exist in the nuclei of both subcortical systems) 3. These loops perform some operation on information from multiple cortical areas. 4. What ever this operation is, it is useful not only for the control of arm movements, but also for the control of eye movements Major Unresolved Issue: What is the unitary operation performed by basal ganglia and cerebellar loops? III. Basal Ganglia Movement Disorders (Figure 5) The basal ganglia are particularly notable because bizarre movement disorders are associated with damage to these nuclei. There are 3 major classes of dysfunction: Akinesia Alterations in muscle tone Involuntary movements 1. AKINESIA is said to be the cardinal deficit of basal ganglia dysfunction. Akinesia means a disinclination to use the affected body part in a normal manner. For example, some patients with basal ganglia disorders will sit motionless. They will show little facial expression and have a "mask-like" stare. These patients will initiate few movements on their own. When they walk, they will show a loss of associated movements. The lack of movement initiation is not due to muscle paralysis or changes in muscle tone. Although some patients with Parkinson's disease will have both rigidity and akinesia, other patients will only be akinetic and show little rigidity. Also, it is possible to abolish rigidity in some patients by making a stereotaxic lesion in the rostral part of the VL thalamus. The akinesia will still be present even in those cases where surgery decreases rigidity. In fact, thalamic surgery may increase the patients akinesia. The most profound akinesia is said to be associated with damage to the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. Forms of akinesia are also seen after lesions of the globus pallidus (psychic akinesia). Bradykinesia is often associated with (and confused with) akinesia. Akinesia refers to the failure to initiate movement or movement that is slow to be initiated. In contrast, Bradykinesia refers to a movement that, once initiated, is performed slowly (later in the lecture I will present the potential physiological basis of bradykinesia).

4 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 4 2. ALTERATIONS IN MUSCLE TONE are the second major class of movement disorder associated with basal ganglia dysfunction. The most common change in muscle tone is an increase. e.g., Rigidity - is an abnormal increase in tone. a- tonic activity is increased in opposing muscles b- muscles are active even when the subject attempts to relax c- because of the increased muscle activity, passive movements in any direction meet resistance d- rigidity is often most pronounced at proximal joints where there are large muscle masses e- rigidity is commonly seen in Parkinson's disease Neurophysiological Basis of Rigidity= abnormal long loop reflexes (Figs. 6&7) Record the activity of a wrist muscle after it is rapidly stretched. The subject is given the prior instruction to relax and told not to respond to the stretch. Normal subjects will show multiple phases of muscle activity: 1. The first phase (onset at msec) = a segmental response 2. Two later phases (onset at msec and msec) = these later phases are termed "long loop" responses Parkinson subjects with rigidity: 1. have abnormally large "long loop" responses to stretch (i.e., large responses beginning approx. 58 msec after the onset of the stretch). 2. do not have any changes in their earliest response to stretch, i.e., the segmental response between 28 and 58 msec.). Thus, segmental mechanisms are unaffected by Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, the enlarged "long loop" responses indicate a central malfunction. Hypotonia- Some basal ganglia disorders show abnormal decreases in muscle tone. Hypotonia is commonly seen in patients with Huntington's disease. With hypotonia subjects show pendular tendon jerks. (This is said to be due to the lack of activity in antagonist muscles. On the other hand, it could be due to a reduction in the long loop responses to stretch. (Rigid subjects do not have pendular tendon jerks.) 3. INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS are the third major class of basal ganglia motor dysfunction. These are movements over which the patient has no control. Four types of involuntary movements are seen in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction: Chorea Athetosis Torsion spasm (dystonia) Tremor A- Chorea = rapid, somewhat spasmodic movements. These abnormal movements can involve one limb, one side of the body or all parts of the body. They can appear like "fragments of a purposeful act", but more often look entirely meaningless. Sometimes these abnormal movements will flow into one another to produce an "elaborate sequence of

5 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 5 meaningless acts." Patients with choreiform movements are capable of normal movements, but often these movements will have choreic features grafted on to them. Choreiform movements are characteristic of Huntington's disease which has lesions in the neostriatum. B- Athetosis = slow, spreading contractions of closely related muscle groups. These are sinuous, writhing movements most commonly observed in the extremities. C- Torsion spasm = (torsion dystonia) powerful tonic contraction of axial and proximal body musculature. Torsion spasm will lead to grotesque postures that are uncontrollable (and at times quite painful). Spasm can appear at the onset of movement and disappear at complete rest. All 3 of these types of voluntary movements are said to require cortical mechanisms for their expression. Cortical or capsular lesions which cause paralysis can abolish these involuntary movements. D- Tremor = alternating to and fro movements caused by alternating contractions in opposing muscles. The rate of many basal ganglia tremors is 3-6/sec. A resting tremor is characteristic of Parkinson's disease. This type of tremor is usually abolished at the start of a voluntary movement. For example, a Park. patient holding a newspaper will have a marked tremor while reading a page of the paper. However, when the patient goes to turn the page, the tremor is abolished. IV. Why are the Basal Ganglia so easily damaged- (Figure 8) What is it about the Basal Ganglia that makes them so susceptible to dysfunction? Four properties of these nuclei may endow them with a special vulnerability: 1) High oxidative metabolism 2) High concentrations of selected neurotransmitters 3) High concentrations of heavy metals 4) Selective affinity for some neurotoxins 1- Oxidative metabolism: The basal ganglia appear to have particularly high metabolic requirements. The caudate and putamen (along with the cerebral and cerebellar cortex) have the highest utilization of oxygen in the brain. This requirement for oxygen may account for these regions being particularly vulnerable to hypoxia. For example, human subjects who have had a bout of hypoxia have a high incidence of Athetosis (a basal ganglia disorder), mental retardation (of cerebral cortex origin), and show cerebellar signs. 2- Neurotransmitters: The basal ganglia have particularly high concentrations of selected neurotransmitters. For example, Dopamine- is most concentrated in the caudate-putamen. Dopamine is located largely in the synaptic terminals. These terminals originate from neurons whose cell bodies lie in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra.

6 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 6 GABA- is most concentrated in the globus pallidus and parts of the substantia nigra. Acetylcholine- is found in high concentrations in the caudate-putamen. Serotonin- one of the highest concentrations of serotonin in the brain is found in the substantia nigra. These neurotransmitters are found at multiple sites throughout the nervous system. However, some of their peak concentrations are found in the basal ganglia. Any "chemical pathology", i.e., any dysfunction in the synthesis, storage, metabolism or release of these transmitters could have profound consequences on basal ganglia function. 3- Heavy Metals: Normally, the basal ganglia have the highest concentration of 3 heavy metals- copper, iron and manganese. Why these metals should be attracted to the basal ganglia is unclear. However, exposure to high levels of these heavy metals results in toxic accumulations of them in the basal ganglia and characteristic movement disorders. For example- IRON - is most concentrated in the globus pallidus and the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra. Exposure to high levels of iron results in a disorder termed Hallervorden - Spatz disease. Patients suffering from this disorder have dystonic postures. MANGANESE - In manganese intoxication, high levels of this heavy metal are found in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. Patients suffering from this disorder have a Parkinson-like syndrome. 4- Selective affinity for damage: MPTP Story (a neurotoxin) MPTP = a contaminant of homemade heroin. After short term use of a homemade form of heroin that was contaminated with MPTP, patients developed an acute syndrome which in many respects was indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease (profound akinesia and rigidity). Other users initially did not show any symptoms. However, after careful examination, many of these subjects were found to have one of the earliest symptoms of Parkinson's disease- micrographia. Later, some of these subjects developed the full blown Parkinson syndrome. Injecting monkeys with MPTP generates a realistic animal model of Parkinson's disease. Analysis of the brains of monkeys and humans exposed to MPTP shows that this treatment results in a loss of dopaminergic neurons which is particularly severe in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. VII. Chemical-Anatomy Model of Basal Ganglia dysfunction (Figures 9&10) 3 Fundamental Assumptions of the Model: 1- increase pallidal output -> decreases VL thalamic activity -> decreases motor cortex activity = akinesia 2- decrease pallidal output -> increases VL thalamic activity -> increases motor cortex activity = hyperkinesia or involuntary movements

7 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 7 3- Dopamine and ACh have opposite effects on striatal output Examples- Subthalamic dyskinesia model- 1- Subthalamic nucleus normally excites GPi neurons. 2- Removal of this excitation, results in a net decrease in pallidal output 3- A decrease in pallidal output leads to decreased inhibition of thalamic neurons and an increase in VL activity 4- Increase VL activity -> increase in motor cortex activity = involuntary movements Parkinson - MPTP model- 1- SNpc DOPA normally excites specific sets of striatal neurons 2- Removal of this excitation, results in a decrease in the activity of striatal neurons that directly inhibit GPi neurons and a net increase in GPi output 3- An increase in pallidal output leads to increased inhibition of thalamic neurons and an decrease in VL activity 4- Decrease VL activity -> decrease in motor cortex activity = akinesia Note: recent evidence suggests that monkeys treated with MPTP have increased GPi activity when they are akinetic. A subthalamic lesion in these animals results in a net decrease in GPi activity (to a more normal level) and less akinesia. What about L-DOPA toxicity? 3 Significant Problems with the model: 1- How can you explain the rigidity seen in Parkinson's disease as a decrease in VL-Motor Cortex activity? 2- If decreases in pallidal output are thought to lead to increases in thalamic input to the motor cortex and hyperkinesia, why doesn't a pallidal lesion produce abnormal movements? 3- Patients vary in their symptoms. Some Parkinson patients have all 3 cardinal symptoms; others display only one of the 3. This feature of the disease is not explained by the model, nor is the finding that lesions in different parts of VL thalamus can differentially affect tremor and rigidity. Anterior lesions in VL tend to reduce rigidity and more posterior lesions in VL tend to affect tremor.

8 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 8 VIII. Proposals about normal function of the Basal Ganglia- Conceptual issue: Most of what we know about the normal function of the basal ganglia is derived from studying the deficits seen in patients with Parkinson's or Huntington's disease. However, can we learn about the normal function of a system from studying it when it is not functioning properly? Logical question: If you cause tremors when you lesion the cerebellum, does that mean that the function of the cerebellum is to prevent tremor? Tracking Task: "Elemental" and "Complex" deficits seen in Parkinson patients. Elemental deficit (grading agonist burst amplitude): Figures 11&12 Complex deficit (generating movement based on an internal model): Figures 13&14 Figure 1

9 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 9 Figure 2 Figure 3

10 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 10 Figure 4

11 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 11 Figure 5 Figure 6

12 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 12 Figure 7 Figure 8

13 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 13 Figure 9 Figure 10

14 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 14 Figure 11 Figure 12

15 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 15 Figure 13 Figure 14

16 Strick Lecture 4 March 29, 2006 Page 16 Figure 15 Figure 16

COGNITIVE SCIENCE 107A. Motor Systems: Basal Ganglia. Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D.

COGNITIVE SCIENCE 107A. Motor Systems: Basal Ganglia. Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D. COGNITIVE SCIENCE 107A Motor Systems: Basal Ganglia Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D. Two major descending s Pyramidal vs. extrapyramidal Motor cortex Pyramidal system Pathway for voluntary movement Most fibers originate

More information

Fondamenti di anatomia e fisiopatologia dei disordini del movimento

Fondamenti di anatomia e fisiopatologia dei disordini del movimento Fondamenti di anatomia e fisiopatologia dei disordini del movimento Laura Avanzino Department of Experimental Medicine, section of Human Physiology Centre for Parkinson s Disease and Movement Disorders

More information

Anatomy of the basal ganglia. Dana Cohen Gonda Brain Research Center, room 410

Anatomy of the basal ganglia. Dana Cohen Gonda Brain Research Center, room 410 Anatomy of the basal ganglia Dana Cohen Gonda Brain Research Center, room 410 danacoh@gmail.com The basal ganglia The nuclei form a small minority of the brain s neuronal population. Little is known about

More information

Basal ganglia Sujata Sofat, class of 2009

Basal ganglia Sujata Sofat, class of 2009 Basal ganglia Sujata Sofat, class of 2009 Basal ganglia Objectives Describe the function of the Basal Ganglia in movement Define the BG components and their locations Describe the motor loop of the BG

More information

Movement Disorders. Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology. Background. Myasthenia Gravis. Many Types

Movement Disorders. Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology. Background. Myasthenia Gravis. Many Types Background Movement Disorders Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E. Meier, Ph.D. Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Early Studies Found some patients with progressive weakness

More information

Basal Ganglia. Today s lecture is about Basal Ganglia and it covers:

Basal Ganglia. Today s lecture is about Basal Ganglia and it covers: Basal Ganglia Motor system is complex interaction between Lower motor neurons (spinal cord and brainstem circuits) and Upper motor neurons (pyramidal and extrapyramidal tracts) plus two main regulators

More information

Strick Lecture 3 March 22, 2017 Page 1

Strick Lecture 3 March 22, 2017 Page 1 Strick Lecture 3 March 22, 2017 Page 1 Cerebellum OUTLINE I. External structure- Inputs and Outputs Cerebellum - (summary diagram) 2 components (cortex and deep nuclei)- (diagram) 3 Sagittal zones (vermal,

More information

The Wonders of the Basal Ganglia

The Wonders of the Basal Ganglia Basal Ganglia The Wonders of the Basal Ganglia by Mackenzie Breton and Laura Strong /// https://kin450- neurophysiology.wikispaces.com/basal+ganglia Introduction The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei

More information

DISORDERS OF THE MOTOR SYSTEM. Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

DISORDERS OF THE MOTOR SYSTEM. Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine DISORDERS OF THE MOTOR SYSTEM Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine THE MOTOR SYSTEM To understand disorders of the motor system, we need to review how a

More information

Visualization and simulated animations of pathology and symptoms of Parkinson s disease

Visualization and simulated animations of pathology and symptoms of Parkinson s disease Visualization and simulated animations of pathology and symptoms of Parkinson s disease Prof. Yifan HAN Email: bctycan@ust.hk 1. Introduction 2. Biochemistry of Parkinson s disease 3. Course Design 4.

More information

Extrapyramidal Motor System. Basal Ganglia or Striatum. Basal Ganglia or Striatum 3/3/2010

Extrapyramidal Motor System. Basal Ganglia or Striatum. Basal Ganglia or Striatum 3/3/2010 Extrapyramidal Motor System Basal Ganglia or Striatum Descending extrapyramidal paths receive input from other parts of motor system: From the cerebellum From the basal ganglia or corpus striatum Caudate

More information

Basal Ganglia General Info

Basal Ganglia General Info Basal Ganglia General Info Neural clusters in peripheral nervous system are ganglia. In the central nervous system, they are called nuclei. Should be called Basal Nuclei but usually called Basal Ganglia.

More information

Basal nuclei, cerebellum and movement

Basal nuclei, cerebellum and movement Basal nuclei, cerebellum and movement MSTN121 - Neurophysiology Session 9 Department of Myotherapy Basal Nuclei (Ganglia) Basal Nuclei (Ganglia) Role: Predict the effects of various actions, then make

More information

1. The cerebellum coordinates fine movement through interactions with the following motor-associated areas:

1. The cerebellum coordinates fine movement through interactions with the following motor-associated areas: DENT/OBHS 131 2009 Take-home test 4 Week 6: Take-home test (2/11/09 close 2/18/09) 1. The cerebellum coordinates fine movement through interactions with the following motor-associated areas: Hypothalamus

More information

Exam 2 PSYC Fall (2 points) Match a brain structure that is located closest to the following portions of the ventricular system

Exam 2 PSYC Fall (2 points) Match a brain structure that is located closest to the following portions of the ventricular system Exam 2 PSYC 2022 Fall 1998 (2 points) What 2 nuclei are collectively called the striatum? (2 points) Match a brain structure that is located closest to the following portions of the ventricular system

More information

Cheyenne 11/28 Neurological Disorders II. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy

Cheyenne 11/28 Neurological Disorders II. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Cheyenne 11/28 Neurological Disorders II Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy -E.g Bovine4 Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE= mad cow disease), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, scrapie (animal only) -Sporadic:

More information

Voluntary Movement. Ch. 14: Supplemental Images

Voluntary Movement. Ch. 14: Supplemental Images Voluntary Movement Ch. 14: Supplemental Images Skeletal Motor Unit: The basics Upper motor neuron: Neurons that supply input to lower motor neurons. Lower motor neuron: neuron that innervates muscles,

More information

NS219: Basal Ganglia Anatomy

NS219: Basal Ganglia Anatomy NS219: Basal Ganglia Anatomy Human basal ganglia anatomy Analagous rodent basal ganglia nuclei Basal ganglia circuits: the classical model of direct and indirect pathways + Glutamate + - GABA - Gross anatomy

More information

Chapter 3. Structure and Function of the Nervous System. Copyright (c) Allyn and Bacon 2004

Chapter 3. Structure and Function of the Nervous System. Copyright (c) Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter 3 Structure and Function of the Nervous System 1 Basic Features of the Nervous System Neuraxis: An imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the central nervous system, from the

More information

MRI images of the cerebellum:

MRI images of the cerebellum: In this lecture we will talk about: MRI images of the cerebellum The cerebellum function Anatomy of the cerebellum Connection mass between cerebullum & cerebral cortex Cells and fiber of the cerebellum

More information

Levodopa vs. deep brain stimulation: computational models of treatments for Parkinson's disease

Levodopa vs. deep brain stimulation: computational models of treatments for Parkinson's disease Levodopa vs. deep brain stimulation: computational models of treatments for Parkinson's disease Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting the dopaminergic neurons of the

More information

THE CEREBELLUM. - anatomy of the cerebellum cerebellar nuclei cerebellar inputs and neuronal structure of the Purkinje cells outputs cerebellum

THE CEREBELLUM. - anatomy of the cerebellum cerebellar nuclei cerebellar inputs and neuronal structure of the Purkinje cells outputs cerebellum CHAPTER THE CEREBELLUM Key Terms - anatomy of the cerebellum cerebellar nuclei cerebellar inputs and neuronal structure of the Purkinje cells outputs cerebellum cerebellar disorders Figure 14.9 For each

More information

Pushing the plasticity: The role of exercise in the management of neurological illness

Pushing the plasticity: The role of exercise in the management of neurological illness Pushing the plasticity: The role of exercise in the management of neurological illness Michael Gaetz Ph.D. Associate Professor, Kinesiology Department Faculty of Health Sciences University of the Fraser

More information

Classes of Neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters

Classes of Neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters 1 Drugs Outline 2 Neurotransmitters Agonists and Antagonists Cocaine & other dopamine agonists Alcohol & its effects / Marijuana & its effects Synthetic & Designer Drugs: Ecstasy 1 Classes of Neurotransmitters

More information

Name: BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY I (2012 sec 002) MIDTERM EXAM 3 (Practice exam)

Name: BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY I (2012 sec 002) MIDTERM EXAM 3 (Practice exam) Name: BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY I (2012 sec 002) MIDTERM EXAM 3 (Practice exam) Mark the ONE BEST letter choice (either A, B, C, D, or E) on the computer-graded sheet in NUMBER TWO PENCIL. If you need to erase,

More information

Cerebellum John T. Povlishock, Ph.D.

Cerebellum John T. Povlishock, Ph.D. Cerebellum John T. Povlishock, Ph.D. OBJECTIVES 1. To identify the major sources of afferent inputs to the cerebellum 2. To define the pre-cerebellar nuclei from which the mossy and climbing fiber systems

More information

Circuits & Behavior. Daniel Huber

Circuits & Behavior. Daniel Huber Circuits & Behavior Daniel Huber How to study circuits? Anatomy (boundaries, tracers, viral tools) Inactivations (lesions, optogenetic, pharma, accidents) Activations (electrodes, magnets, optogenetic)

More information

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Exam Name 1) A change in the conditions in the synaptic terminal can influence the soma as a result of axoplasmic transport. 2) The nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. A) efferent

More information

Page 1 L 58. The University of Connecticut Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine Humans Systems: Organ Systems /2013 RETICULAR FORMATION

Page 1 L 58. The University of Connecticut Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine Humans Systems: Organ Systems /2013 RETICULAR FORMATION Page 1 L 58 Douglas L. Oliver, Ph.D. The University of Connecticut Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine Humans Systems: Organ Systems 1 2012/2013 RETICULAR FORMATION Lecture Lecture: Douglas Oliver

More information

The basal forebrain: Questions, chapter 29:

The basal forebrain: Questions, chapter 29: The basal forebrain: Questions, chapter 29: 7) What is the "basal forebrain", and what is its involvement in Alzheimer' s Disease? The acetylcholine-containing neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynart

More information

By Dr. Saeed Vohra & Dr. Sanaa Alshaarawy

By Dr. Saeed Vohra & Dr. Sanaa Alshaarawy By Dr. Saeed Vohra & Dr. Sanaa Alshaarawy 1 By the end of the lecture, students will be able to : Distinguish the internal structure of the components of the brain stem in different levels and the specific

More information

The Central Nervous System I. Chapter 12

The Central Nervous System I. Chapter 12 The Central Nervous System I Chapter 12 The Central Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord Contained within the Axial Skeleton Brain Regions and Organization Medical Scheme (4 regions) 1. Cerebral Hemispheres

More information

Indicate whether the statement is true (A) or false (B).

Indicate whether the statement is true (A) or false (B). Bio70 Psychobiology Fall 2006 First Midterm October 12 Version A You must put your name and student ID number on both the paper test and your Scantron. Make sure to put the test version number on your

More information

The Nervous System. Overall Function

The Nervous System. Overall Function The Nervous System The Nervous System Overall Function COMMUNICATION Works with the endocrine system in regulating body functioning, but the nervous system is specialized for SPEED Neurons A neuron is

More information

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue 9/12/11 Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Overview of the nervous system Cells of the nervous system Electrophysiology of neurons Synapses Neural integration Subdivisions of the Nervous System 1 Subdivisions of

More information

nucleus accumbens septi hier-259 Nucleus+Accumbens birnlex_727

nucleus accumbens septi hier-259 Nucleus+Accumbens birnlex_727 Nucleus accumbens From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Brain: Nucleus accumbens Nucleus accumbens visible in red. Latin NeuroNames MeSH NeuroLex ID nucleus accumbens septi hier-259 Nucleus+Accumbens birnlex_727

More information

Chapter 2: Studies of Human Learning and Memory. From Mechanisms of Memory, second edition By J. David Sweatt, Ph.D.

Chapter 2: Studies of Human Learning and Memory. From Mechanisms of Memory, second edition By J. David Sweatt, Ph.D. Chapter 2: Studies of Human Learning and Memory From Mechanisms of Memory, second edition By J. David Sweatt, Ph.D. Medium Spiny Neuron A Current Conception of the major memory systems in the brain Figure

More information

Skeletal Reflexes. Lanny Shulman, O.D., Ph.D. University of Houston College of Optometry

Skeletal Reflexes. Lanny Shulman, O.D., Ph.D. University of Houston College of Optometry Skeletal Reflexes Lanny Shulman, O.D., Ph.D. University of Houston College of Optometry Afferent System: Sensory Neurons 10 million Connect sensory receptor in PNS with spinal cord or Receptors can be

More information

The Neuroscience of Music in Therapy

The Neuroscience of Music in Therapy Course Objectives The Neuroscience of Music in Therapy Unit I. Learn Basic Brain Information Unit II. Music in the Brain; Why Music Works Unit III. Considerations for Populations a. Rehabilitation b. Habilitation

More information

Frontal Lobe Functions. Pivotal Case: Phineas Gage. What did change? What did we learn from this? Fredric E. Rose, Ph.D. Winter /13/1848

Frontal Lobe Functions. Pivotal Case: Phineas Gage. What did change? What did we learn from this? Fredric E. Rose, Ph.D. Winter /13/1848 Frontal Lobe Functions Fredric E. Rose, Ph.D. Winter 2006 9/13/1848 Pivotal Case: Phineas Gage 25 yo construction foreman for Rutland and Burlington RR in New England Used a tamping iron to fill holes

More information

Degree of freedom problem

Degree of freedom problem KINE 4500 Neural Control of Movement Lecture #1:Introduction to the Neural Control of Movement Neural control of movement Kinesiology: study of movement Here we re looking at the control system, and what

More information

Overview. Part I. Part II. Meninges Vascular System Major Cortical Structures Cranial Nerves. Ventricular System Major Subcortical Structures

Overview. Part I. Part II. Meninges Vascular System Major Cortical Structures Cranial Nerves. Ventricular System Major Subcortical Structures Basic Neuroanatomy Overview Part I Meninges Vascular System Major Cortical Structures Cranial Nerves Part II Ventricular System Major Subcortical Structures Part I Meninges Vascular System Major Cortical

More information

Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9

Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9 Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9 I) INTRO A) Nervous system discussed so far 1) Specific 2) Fast B) Other systems extended in space and time 1) Nonspecific 2) Slow C) Three components that

More information

Department of Neurology/Division of Anatomical Sciences

Department of Neurology/Division of Anatomical Sciences Spinal Cord I Lecture Outline and Objectives CNS/Head and Neck Sequence TOPIC: FACULTY: THE SPINAL CORD AND SPINAL NERVES, Part I Department of Neurology/Division of Anatomical Sciences LECTURE: Monday,

More information

Chapter 14, Part 2! Chapter 14 Part 2 Brain/Cranial Nerves! The Cerebrum and Cranial Nerves! pp !

Chapter 14, Part 2! Chapter 14 Part 2 Brain/Cranial Nerves! The Cerebrum and Cranial Nerves! pp ! Chapter 14, Part 2! The Cerebrum and Cranial pp. 482 505! SECTION 14-9! The cerebrum, the largest region of the brain, contains motor, sensory, and association areas! 2! White Matter of the Cerebrum! 1.

More information

Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord Collections of cell body and dendrites (grey matter) are called nuclei/nucleus Nucleus can also

Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord Collections of cell body and dendrites (grey matter) are called nuclei/nucleus Nucleus can also Chapter 3 Part 1 Orientation Directions in the nervous system are described relatively to the neuraxis An imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the central nervous system, from the bottom

More information

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations and Neuroscience

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations and Neuroscience Chapter 3 Biological Foundations and Neuroscience Copyright 2001 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited Heredity! Chromosomes! Threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair coming from each

More information

1. Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus; also called the soma.

1. Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus; also called the soma. 1. Base of brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing 2. tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue 3. A thick band of axons that connects the

More information

Neuvous system. Chapter 6.1 neuron and neuroglia cell physiology classes of neurons: different criterion

Neuvous system. Chapter 6.1 neuron and neuroglia cell physiology classes of neurons: different criterion Chapter 6 Neuvous system Chapter 6.1 neuron and neuroglia cell physiology 611neurons 6.1.1 classes of neurons: different criterion afferent, efferent and interneurons Sensory, motor, inter-neurons Exciting

More information

Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia Review Feature Review Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia Andreea C. Bostan 2, Richard P. Dum 2, and Peter L. Strick 1,2 1 Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh,

More information

Disorders of Movement M A R T I N H A R L E Y N E U R O L O G Y

Disorders of Movement M A R T I N H A R L E Y N E U R O L O G Y Disorders of Movement M A R T I N H A R L E Y N E U R O L O G Y Educational Objectives Improved history taking in patients with movement disorders. Develop a systematic approach to observing and describing

More information

Chapter 17. Nervous System Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands. !

Chapter 17. Nervous System Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands. ! Chapter 17 Sensory receptor Sensory input Integration Nervous System Motor output Brain and spinal cord Effector cells Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Central nervous system (CNS) 28.1 Nervous systems

More information

CHAPTER 15 LECTURE OUTLINE

CHAPTER 15 LECTURE OUTLINE CHAPTER 15 LECTURE OUTLINE I. INTRODUCTION A. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and certain glands. B. Operation of the ANS to maintain homeostasis,

More information

The Frontal Lobes. Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes. Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes 3/2/2011. Portrait: Losing Frontal-Lobe Functions. Readings: KW Ch.

The Frontal Lobes. Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes. Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes 3/2/2011. Portrait: Losing Frontal-Lobe Functions. Readings: KW Ch. The Frontal Lobes Readings: KW Ch. 16 Portrait: Losing Frontal-Lobe Functions E.L. Highly organized college professor Became disorganized, showed little emotion, and began to miss deadlines Scores on intelligence

More information

Reflexes. Dr. Baizer

Reflexes. Dr. Baizer Reflexes Dr. Baizer 1 Reflexes Definition of reflex: unlearned motor response to sensory stimulus. (NOT as used in common speech, synonymous with reaction time). There are dozens of reflexes, different

More information

Indications. DBS for Tremor. What is the PSA? 6/08/2014. Tremor. 1. Tremor. 2. Gait freezing/postural instability. 3. Motor fluctuations

Indications. DBS for Tremor. What is the PSA? 6/08/2014. Tremor. 1. Tremor. 2. Gait freezing/postural instability. 3. Motor fluctuations Indications Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson s disease A Tailored Approach 1. Tremor 2. Gait freezing/postural instability Wesley Thevathasan FRACP DPhil.Oxf 3. Motor fluctuations Consultant Neurologist,

More information

Biology 218 Human Anatomy

Biology 218 Human Anatomy Chapter 21 Adapted form Tortora 10 th ed. LECTURE OUTLINE A. Overview of Sensations (p. 652) 1. Sensation is the conscious or subconscious awareness of external or internal stimuli. 2. For a sensation

More information

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now?

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now? Bio11: The Nervous System Body control systems Nervous system Quick Sends message directly to target organ Endocrine system Sends a hormone as a messenger to the target organ Can target several organs

More information

CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling Lect 22,24,25: Memory Systems

CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling Lect 22,24,25: Memory Systems CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling Lect 22,24,25: Memory Systems Compare Chap 31 of Purves et al., 5e Chap 24 of Bear et al., 3e Larry Wittie Computer Science, StonyBrook University http://www.cs.sunysb.edu/~cse511

More information

NEURONS ARE ORGANIZED INTO NERVOUS SYSTEMS 34.5

NEURONS ARE ORGANIZED INTO NERVOUS SYSTEMS 34.5 NEURONS ARE ORGANIZED INTO NERVOUS SYSTEMS 34.5 INTRODUCTION The cnidarians have nerve nets, the most simple type of nervous system. The sea anemone has a nerve net that serves simple behaviours such as

More information

PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1

PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1 PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1 1 What is a neuron? 2 Name and describe the functions of the three main parts of the neuron. 3 What do glial cells do? 4 Describe the three basic

More information

Lecture - Chapter 13: Central Nervous System

Lecture - Chapter 13: Central Nervous System Lecture - Chapter 13: Central Nervous System 1. Describe the following structures of the brain, what is the general function of each: a. Cerebrum b. Diencephalon c. Brain Stem d. Cerebellum 2. What structures

More information

Muscle Tissue- 3 Types

Muscle Tissue- 3 Types AN INTRODUCTION TO MUSCLE TISSUE Muscle Tissue- 3 Types Skeletal muscle (focus on these) Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle FUNCTIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES Produce movement of the skeleton Maintain posture and

More information

The Basal Ganglia in Parkinson s Disease: Current Concepts and Unexplained Observations

The Basal Ganglia in Parkinson s Disease: Current Concepts and Unexplained Observations The Basal Ganglia in Parkinson s Disease: Current Concepts and Unexplained Observations Jose A. Obeso, PhD, MD, 1,2 Concepcio Marin, PhD, MD, 2,3 C. Rodriguez-Oroz, PhD, MD, 1,2 Javier Blesa, 1,2 B. Benitez-Temiño,

More information

Surgical Treatment: Patient Edition

Surgical Treatment: Patient Edition Parkinson s Disease Clinic and Research Center University of California, San Francisco 505 Parnassus Ave., Rm. 795-M, Box 0114 San Francisco, CA 94143-0114 (415) 476-9276 http://pdcenter.neurology.ucsf.edu

More information

The Physiology of the Senses Chapter 8 - Muscle Sense

The Physiology of the Senses Chapter 8 - Muscle Sense The Physiology of the Senses Chapter 8 - Muscle Sense www.tutis.ca/senses/ Contents Objectives... 1 Introduction... 2 Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs... 3 Gamma Drive... 5 Three Spinal Reflexes...

More information

NEUROTRANSMITTERS. Contraction of muscles to move our bodies Release hormones Psychological states of thinking and emotions

NEUROTRANSMITTERS. Contraction of muscles to move our bodies Release hormones Psychological states of thinking and emotions NEUROTRANSMITTERS NEURONS Neurons don t actually touch Separated by a tiny fluid-filled gap called a synapse Neural impulses must be ferried across the synapse by chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.

More information

DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION

DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION Non-Discrimination Statement and Multi-Language Interpreter Services information are located at the end of this document. Coverage for services, procedures, medical devices and drugs

More information

neuropsychiatric effects of subthalamic neurostimulation in Parkinson disease

neuropsychiatric effects of subthalamic neurostimulation in Parkinson disease reviews neuropsychiatric effects of subthalamic neurostimulation in Parkinson disease Jens Volkmann, Christine Daniels and Karsten Witt Abstract Neurostimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an

More information

Introduction to the Central Nervous System: Internal Structure

Introduction to the Central Nervous System: Internal Structure Introduction to the Central Nervous System: Internal Structure Objective To understand, in general terms, the internal organization of the brain and spinal cord. To understand the 3-dimensional organization

More information

The Nervous System: Central Nervous System

The Nervous System: Central Nervous System The Nervous System: Central Nervous System I. Anatomy of the nervous system A. The CNS & the body by: 1. monitoring of the body 2. & information between parts of the body 3. acting as a to gather, store,

More information

Lab 12 Nervous System II

Lab 12 Nervous System II Lab 12 Nervous System II Laboratory Objectives Identify the structural components of the central nervous system Label the functional areas of human cerebral cortex. Given a deficit affecting one or more

More information

EFFECT OF QIGONG EXERCISE ON SLEEP QUALITY AND GAIT PERFORMANCE IN PARKINSON S DISEASE Derek J. Wassom

EFFECT OF QIGONG EXERCISE ON SLEEP QUALITY AND GAIT PERFORMANCE IN PARKINSON S DISEASE Derek J. Wassom EFFECT OF QIGONG EXERCISE ON SLEEP QUALITY AND GAIT PERFORMANCE IN PARKINSON S DISEASE BY 2012 Derek J. Wassom Submitted to the graduate degree program in Bioengineering and the Graduate Faculty of the

More information

On the nature of Rhythm, Time & Memory. Sundeep Teki Auditory Group Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging University College London

On the nature of Rhythm, Time & Memory. Sundeep Teki Auditory Group Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging University College London On the nature of Rhythm, Time & Memory Sundeep Teki Auditory Group Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging University College London Timing substrates Timing mechanisms Rhythm and Timing Unified timing

More information

Chapter 28 Nervous Systems

Chapter 28 Nervous Systems Chapter 28 Nervous Systems PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J.

More information

On the Origin of Tremor in Parkinson s Disease

On the Origin of Tremor in Parkinson s Disease On the Origin of Tremor in Parkinson s Disease Andrey Dovzhenok 1, Leonid L Rubchinsky 1,2 1 Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Mathematical Biosciences, Indiana University Purdue University

More information

Receptors and Neurotransmitters: It Sounds Greek to Me. Agenda. What We Know About Pain 9/7/2012

Receptors and Neurotransmitters: It Sounds Greek to Me. Agenda. What We Know About Pain 9/7/2012 Receptors and Neurotransmitters: It Sounds Greek to Me Cathy Carlson, PhD, RN Northern Illinois University Agenda We will be going through this lecture on basic pain physiology using analogies, mnemonics,

More information

Deep Brain Stimulation For Parkinson s Disease

Deep Brain Stimulation For Parkinson s Disease Deep Brain Stimulation For Parkinson s Disease What s new in brain circuit training Associate Professor Robert Wilcox Flinders University & University of South Australia Neurology Department, Flinders

More information

Deep Brain Stimulation. Is It Right for You?

Deep Brain Stimulation. Is It Right for You? Deep Brain Stimulation Is It Right for You? Northwestern Medicine Deep Brain Stimulation What is DBS? Northwestern Medicine Central DuPage Hospital is a regional destination for the treatment of movement

More information

SOMATIC SENSATION PART I: ALS ANTEROLATERAL SYSTEM (or SPINOTHALAMIC SYSTEM) FOR PAIN AND TEMPERATURE

SOMATIC SENSATION PART I: ALS ANTEROLATERAL SYSTEM (or SPINOTHALAMIC SYSTEM) FOR PAIN AND TEMPERATURE Dental Neuroanatomy Thursday, February 3, 2011 Suzanne S. Stensaas, PhD SOMATIC SENSATION PART I: ALS ANTEROLATERAL SYSTEM (or SPINOTHALAMIC SYSTEM) FOR PAIN AND TEMPERATURE Reading: Waxman 26 th ed, :

More information

Surgical Treatment of Movement Disorders. Surgical Treatment of Movement Disorders. New Techniques: Procedure is safer and better

Surgical Treatment of Movement Disorders. Surgical Treatment of Movement Disorders. New Techniques: Procedure is safer and better Surgical Treatment of Movement Stephen Grill, MD, PHD Johns Hopkins University and Parkinson s and Movement Center of Maryland Surgical Treatment of Movement Historical Aspects Preoperative Issues Surgical

More information

doi: /brain/aws360 Brain 2013: 136; The cerebellum in Parkinson s disease

doi: /brain/aws360 Brain 2013: 136; The cerebellum in Parkinson s disease doi:10.1093/brain/aws360 Brain 2013: 136; 696 709 696 BRAIN A JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY REVIEW ARTICLE The cerebellum in Parkinson s disease Tao Wu 1 and Mark Hallett 2 1 Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory

More information

Cranial Nerves and Spinal Cord Flashcards

Cranial Nerves and Spinal Cord Flashcards 1. Name the cranial nerves and their Roman numeral. 2. What is Cranial Nerve I called, and what does it 3. Scientists who are trying to find a way to make neurons divide to heal nerve injuries often study

More information

Evaluating the roles of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum in time perception

Evaluating the roles of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum in time perception Sundeep Teki Evaluating the roles of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum in time perception Auditory Cognition Group Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging SENSORY CORTEX SMA/PRE-SMA HIPPOCAMPUS BASAL

More information

Axon Nerve impulse. Axoplasm Receptor. Axomembrane Stimuli. Schwann cell Effector. Myelin Cell body

Axon Nerve impulse. Axoplasm Receptor. Axomembrane Stimuli. Schwann cell Effector. Myelin Cell body Nervous System Review 1. Explain a reflex arc. 2. Know the structure, function and location of a sensory neuron, interneuron, and motor neuron 3. What is (a) Neuron Axon Nerve impulse Axoplasm Receptor

More information

3) Approach to Ataxia - Dr. Zana

3) Approach to Ataxia - Dr. Zana 3) Approach to Ataxia - Dr. Zana Introduction Ataxia is derived from Greek word a -not, taxis -orderly, (not orderly/ not in order) Ataxia is the inability to make smooth, accurate and coordinated movements

More information

Behavioural disorders induced by external globus pallidus dysfunction in primates II. Anatomical study

Behavioural disorders induced by external globus pallidus dysfunction in primates II. Anatomical study DOI: 10.1093/brain/awh239 Brain (2004), 127, 2055 2070 Behavioural disorders induced by external globus pallidus dysfunction in primates II. Anatomical study Chantal François, David Grabli, Kevin McCairn,

More information

Physiologic Anatomy and Nervous Connections of the Bladder

Physiologic Anatomy and Nervous Connections of the Bladder Micturition Objectives: 1. Review the anatomical organization of the urinary system from a physiological point of view. 2. Describe the micturition reflex. 3. Predict the lines of treatment of renal failure.

More information

Notes: Organization. Anatomy of the Nervous System. Cerebral cortex. Cortical layers. PSYC 2: Biological Foundations - Fall Professor Claffey

Notes: Organization. Anatomy of the Nervous System. Cerebral cortex. Cortical layers. PSYC 2: Biological Foundations - Fall Professor Claffey PSYC 2: Biological Foundations - Fall 2012 - Professor Claffey Notes: Organization Version: 10/30/12 - original version Anatomy of the Nervous System Content covered in Hans's lecture: CNS & PNS Directions/Planes

More information

BENG 260 Supplementary neurophysiology slides

BENG 260 Supplementary neurophysiology slides BENG 260 Supplementary neurophysiology slides Fall 2013 Slides are taken from Vander s Human Physiology, 11 th edition, McGraw Hill (ISBN 0077216091)" These slides cover:" Chapter 6, Neuronal Signaling

More information

Skeletal Muscle. Smooth Muscle. Cardiac Muscle. I. 3 Types of Muscle Tissue. 1. Smooth 2. Cardiac 3. Skeletal

Skeletal Muscle. Smooth Muscle. Cardiac Muscle. I. 3 Types of Muscle Tissue. 1. Smooth 2. Cardiac 3. Skeletal I. 3 Types of Muscle Tissue 1. Smooth 2. Cardiac 3. Skeletal Smooth Muscle Found in body organs,vessels, respiratory passages Not striated, tapered, single cell nucleus involuntary, peristaltic contractions

More information

Upper and Lower Motoneurons for the Head Objectives

Upper and Lower Motoneurons for the Head Objectives Upper and Lower Motoneurons for the Head Objectives Know the locations of cranial nerve motor nuclei Describe the effects of motor cranial nerve lesions Describe how the corticobulbar tract innervates

More information