Anatomy and Physiology (Bio 220) The Brain Chapter 14 and select portions of Chapter 16

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1 Anatomy and Physiology (Bio 220) The Brain Chapter 14 and select portions of Chapter 16 I. Introduction A. Appearance 1. physical 2. weight 3. relative weight B. Major parts of the brain 1. cerebrum 2. diencephalon 3. brain stem 4. cerebellum II. The Cerebrum A. Structures 1. gyri 2. sulci 3. longitudinal fissure 4. transverse cerebral fissure 5. central sulcus Page 1 of 19

2 B. Lobes 1. frontal lobe a. precentral gyrus 2. parietal lobe b. postcentral gyrus 3. occipital lobe 4. temporal lobe 5. insula C. Basic regions 1. cortex 2. white matter 3. basal nuclei D. Cerebral cortex 1. generalizations of functional areas a. three functional areas are found in the cerebral cortex i. motor areas ii. sensory areas iii. association areas b. each hemisphere is concerned with sensory and motor functions of the opposite side of the body c. two hemispheres not symmetrical in function (although symmetrical in structure) d. remember!! This is a GROSS oversimplification. No functional area acts alone. Page 2 of 19

3 2. motor areas a. primary (somatic) motor cortex i. location ii. types of neurons found here: iii. general function iv. tracts formed a) pyramidal tracts b) corticospinal tracts v. somatotopy a) definition b) motor homunculis b. premotor cortex i. location ii. general function a. learned motor skills b. coordinates the movement of muscle groups c. planning movements Page 3 of 19

4 c. Broca's area i. location ii. function a. motor speech b. speech preparation e. damage to functional areas of the brain i. primary motor cortex ii. premotor cortex iii. Broca s area 3. sensory areas a. primary somatosensory cortex i. location ii. information received from: iii. function a) spatial discrimination b) somatosensory homunculis iv. damage Page 4 of 19

5 b. somatosensory association cortex i. location ii. functions a) integrate sensory inputs iii. damage c. visual areas i. primary visual cortex a) location b) function ii. visual association area a) location b) function iii. damage d. auditory areas i. primary auditory cortex a) location b) function ii. auditory association area a) location b) function Page 5 of 19

6 e. olfactory cortex i. location ii. function 4. association areas a. prefrontal cortex i. function ii. damage b. language areas i. Wernike's area ii. Broca's area iii. lateral prefrontal cortex iv. lateral and ventral portions of temporal lobe v. right hemisphere portions c. general interpretation area d. visceral association area Page 6 of 19

7 5. lateralization of cortical functioning a. definition b. cerebral donimance i. 90% "left" brained a) left hemisphere b) right hemisphere ii. 10% "right" brained differences: d. connections E. Cerebral white matter 1. commissures examples 2. association fibers 3. projection fibers Page 7 of 19

8 F. Basal nuclei (aka basal ganglia) 1. corpus striatum a. caudate nuclei b. lentiform nucleus c. amygdala 2. substantia nigra III. Diencephalon A. Location B. Parts 1. thalamus 2. hypothalamus 3. epithalamus Page 8 of 19

9 C. Thalamus 1. contents 2. function D. Hypothalamus 1. parts a. mammillary bodies b. infundibulum pituitary gland 2. functions a. control of ANS b. production of hormones c. regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns d. regulation of eating and drinking e. control of body temperature f. regulation of circadian rhythms and states of consciousness E. Epithalamus 1. pineal gland a. secretion b. function Page 9 of 19

10 IV. Brain Stem A. Midbrain 1. cerebral peduncles 2. corpora quadrigemmina (tectum) a. superior colliculi b. inferior colliculi 4. substantia nigra Relevance to Parkinson s disease: B. Pons C. Medulla oblongata 1. pyramids decussation of pyramids 2. nuclei a. nucleus gracilis b. nucleus cuneatus Page 10 of 19

11 3. autonomic reflex centers a. cardiovascular center b. respiratory centers c. other centers V. Cerebellum A. Cerebellar peduncles B. Functional scheme for cerebellar processing of motor activity 1. frontal motor association area of cerebral cortex 2. proprioceptor information 3. integration 4. cerebral stimulation C. Cognitive function D. Cerebellar dysfunction Page 11 of 19

12 VI. Functional Brain Systems A. Limbic system 1. main structures of a. hypothalamus b. anterior nucleus of the thalamus c. fornix d. amygdala 2. function a. amygdala b. cingulate gyrus c. odor 3. relayed through psychosomatic illnesses 4. relationship between "emotional" and cognitive brain a. emotional reactions to things we consciously know to be happening b. conscious awareness of emotional richness in our lives c. may play role in memory Page 12 of 19

13 B. Reticular formation 1. location 2. composition a. raphe nuclei b. medial group c. lateral group 3. function reticular activation system (RAS) a. b. 4. inhibition of 5. effect of LSD on RAS 6. effect of twisting of brain stem Page 13 of 19

14 VII. Protection of the Brain A. Meninges 1. dura mater a. layers i. periosteal layer ii. meningeal layer b. falx cerebri c. falx cerebelli d. tentorium cerebelli 2. arachnoid mater 3. pia mater 4. meningitis Page 14 of 19

15 B. Cerebrospinal fluid 1. location 2. function a. b. c. 3. composition 4. production choroid plexuses a. capillaries b. ependymal cells Page 15 of 19

16 5. flow of CSF Ependymal cells + Capillaries Choroid Plexuses (from each of the ventricles) Lateral ventricles Interventricular foramen Third ventricle Cerebral aqueduct Fourth ventricle Median and lateral apertures Subarachnoid space Arachnoid villi Central canal of spinal cord Filum terminale Dural Sinuses subarachnoid space Venous blood supply Page 16 of 19

17 D. Blood brain barrier 1. function 2. composition of blood brain barrier a. endothelium of capillaries b. basal lamina of capillaries c. bulbous feet of astrocytes 3. characteristics IX. Degenerative Brain Disorders A. Alzheimer's disease B. Parkinson's disease Page 17 of 19

18 A P Page 18 of 19

19 Page 19 of 19

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