9.1 Chemical Pathways ATP

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1 9.1 Chemical Pathways ATP

2 Objectives Explain cellular respiration. Describe what happens during glycolysis. Describe what happens during fermentation.

3 Where do we get energy? Energy is stored in organic molecules (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) Heterotrophs eat these organic molecules and digest food to get - fuels for energy (ATP) - raw materials for building more molecules (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids) ATP

4 What is energy in biology? ATP Adenosine TriPhosphate

5 Burn fuels to make energy combustion making heat energy by burning fuels in ONE step fuel (carbohydrates) O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + heat aerobic respiration making ATP energy (and some heat) by burning fuels in MANY small steps ATP food O 2 (carbohydrates) ATP + CO 2 + H 2 O (+ heat)

6 Fast vs. Slow Release - Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), when burned in the presence of oxygen, releases 3811 calories of heat energy. - Cells don't burn glucose. Instead, they gradually release the energy from glucose and other food compounds. - How is this better? - Energy can be channeled into doing useful work.

7 Harvesting energy stored in food Cellular respiration - breaking down food to produce ATP - in mitochondria - using oxygen ( aerobic respiration) - usually digesting glucose but could be other sugars, fats, or proteins food O 2 ATP glucose + oxygen energy + carbon + water dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 ATP + 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O

8 About ATP - can t store ATP - too unstable - only used in cell that produces it - only short-term energy storage Carbohydrates and fats are long-term energy storage ATP Adenosine TriPhosphate Adenosine DiPhosphate ADP work A working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per second

9 Mitochondria are everywhere!!! animal cells plant cells

10 Overview of Cellular Respiration If oxygen is PRESENT, glycolysis is followed by the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. This process is aerobic respiration. If oxygen is ABSENT, glycolysis is followed by fermentation.

11 Overview of Cellular Respiration Electrons carried in NADH Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

12 Glycolysis breakdown of 1 glucose into 2 pyruvic acids producing: - a little bit of ATP - high-energy electrons 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid

13 Glycolysis Each NAD + accepts a pair of high-energy electrons and becomes an NADH molecule. Electrons are later passed onto the ETC. 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP Glucose 2NAD Pyruvic acid

14 Advantages of Glycolysis The process of glycolysis is so fast that cells can produce thousands of ATP molecules in a few milliseconds. Glycolysis does NOT require oxygen. Interesting Some evolutionary perspectives The first cells (prokaryotic) had no organelles Earth s primitive atmosphere was without oxygen energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O 2

15 Fermentation When oxygen is NOT present Glycolysis is followed by fermentation. Fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen.

16

17 Fermentation During fermentation, cells convert NADH to NAD + by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid allows glycolysis to continue producing a steady supply of ATP. No oxygen is required an anaerobic process! Two main types of fermentation: lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation

18 Alcohol Fermentation Yeasts and a few other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes. pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol + CO 2 + NAD + used to make beer, wine, bread

19 Lactic Acid Fermentation Bacteria and animals convert pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis to lactic acid. pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid + NAD + Bacteria make yogurt Animals feel muscle fatigue Tastes good but not enough energy for me!

20 9.2 The Krebs Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain

21 Objectives Describe what happens during the Krebs cycle Explain how high-energy electrons are used by the ETC to generate ATP

22

23 The Krebs Cycle Pyruvate enters the Krebs cycle - looses 1 C - forms CO 2 - electrons change NAD + to NADH Acetyl CoA is formed.

24 Electron Carriers Krebs cycle produces: - large quantities of electron carriers NADH, FADH 2 ADP + P i ATP - and a tiny bit of ATP Electrons are carried to the Electron Transport Chain

25 The Krebs Cycle The energy tally from the Krebs cycle: 4 NADH, 1 FADH 2, 1 ATP In the presence of oxygen, those highenergy electrons can be used to generate huge amounts of ATP.

26 The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Production Channel ATP synthase ATP

27 High-energy electrons from NADH and FADH 2 are passed along from one carrier protein to the next.

28 Water is formed At the end of the chain, these electrons combine with hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water.

29 H + are moved When electrons move along, their energy is used to move H + across the membrane.

30 H+ gradient A gradient of H + is being built high à low

31 ATP synthesis As H + diffuse, the ATP synthase spins, producing ATP. Channel ATP synthase ATP

32 Summary Channel ATP synthase ATP

33 The Totals Glycolysis produces only 2 ATP Cellular respiration (Krebs cycle and ETC) produce 34 ATP.

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