1. Distinguish among the types of blood vessels on the basis of their structure and function.

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1 Blood Vessels and Circulation Objectives This chapter describes the structure and functions of the blood vessels Additional subjects contained in Chapter 13 include cardiovascular physiology, regulation, response, and effects of aging Review of Chapter Objectives 1 Distinguish among the types of blood vessels on the basis of their structure and function 2 Explain the mechanisms that regulate blood flow through arteries, capillaries, and veins 3 Discuss the mechanisms and various pressures involved in the movement of fluids between capillaries and interstitial spaces 4 Describe the factors that influence blood pressure and how blood pressure is regulated 5 Explain how the activities of the cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers are coordinated to control blood flow through the tissues 6 Explain how the circulatory system responds to the demands of exercise and hemorrhaging 7 Identify the major arteries and veins and the areas they serve 8 Describe the age-related changes that occur in the cardiovascular system 9 Discuss the structural and functional interactions among the cardiovascular system and other body systems Blood Vessels and Circulation Multiple Choice 1 An increase in cardiac normally occurs during: stimulation of the vasomotor center the process of vasomotion widespread parasympathetic stimulation

2 2 The central regulation of cardiac primarily involves the activities of the: somatic nervous system central nervous system autonomic nervous system 3 Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduces blood volume and pressure by: stimulating peripheral vasodilation increased water loss by kidneys blocking release of ADH all the above 4 From the following selections, choose the answer that correctly identifies all the factors which would increase blood pressure (Note: CO = cardiac ; SV = stroke volume; VR = venous return; PR peripheral resistance; = blood volume) increasing CO, increasing SV, decreasing VR, decreasing PR, increasing increasing CO, decreasing SV, increasing VR, decreasing PR, increasing increasing CO, increasing SV, increasing VR, increasing PR, increasing increasing CO, increasing SV, decreasing VR, increasing PR, decreasing 5 The most important determinant of peripheral resistance is: differences in the length of the blood vessels a combination of neural and hormonal mechanisms the diameter of the arterioles friction between the blood and the vessel walls

3 6 The two major factors affecting blood flow rates are: pressure and resistance neural and hormonal control mechanisms diameter and length of blood vessels 7 The distinctive sounds of Korotkoff heard when taking the blood pressure are produced by: the opening and closing of the atrioventricular valves the contraction and relaxation of the ventricles turbulences as blood flows past the constricted portion of the artery 8 Of the following blood vessels, the greatest resistance to blood flow occurs in the: veins capillaries venules arterioles 9 The "specialized" arteries that are able to tolerate the pressure shock produced each time ventricular systole occurs and blood leaves the heart are: elastic arteries muscular arteries arterioles fenestrated arteries 10 The unidirectional flow of blood in venules and medium-sized veins is

4 maintained by: arterial pressure pressure from the left ventricle the presence of valves the muscular walls of the veins 11 The only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluids are: arterioles venules 12 One of the major characteristics of the arteries supplying peripheral tissues is that they are: rigid elastic muscular 13 Smooth muscle fibers in arteries and veins are found in the: tunica externa tunica media tunica interna endothelial lining 14 The layer of vascular tissue that consists of an endothelial lining and an underlying layer of connective tissue dominated by elastic fibers is the: tunica interna tunica media

5 tunica adventitia tunica externa 15 Stimulation of the vasomotor center in the medulla causes and inhibition of: increasing diameter of arteriole; decreasing diameter of arteriole vasodilation; vasoconstriction vasoconstriction; vasodilation hyperemia; ischemia The three primary interrelated changes that occur as exercise begins are: increasing vasodilation, decreasing venous return, increasing cardiac decreasing vasodilation, increasing venous return, increasing cardiac decreasing vasodilation, decreasing venous return, decreasing cardiac increasing vasodilation, increasing venous return, increasing cardiac The only area of the body where the blood supply is unaffected while exercising at maximum levels is the: hepatic portal circulation peripheral circulation brain pulmonary circulation 18 The three elastic arteries that originate along the aortic arch and deliver blood to the head, neck, shoulders, and arms are the: axillary, R common carotid, right subclavian R axillary, R brachial, L internal carotid

6 brachiocephalic, L common carotid, left subclavian R dorsal, R thoracic, R vertebral 19 The large blood vessel that collects most of the venous blood from organs below the diaphragm is the: inferior vena cava hepatic portal vein superior mesenteric vein superior vena cava 20 The three blood vessels that provide blood to all of the digestive organs in the abdominopelvic cavity are the: celiac artery and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, superior phrenic artery intercostal, esophageal, and bronchial arteries suprarenal, renal, and lumbar arteries 21 Blood homeostasis is maintained by: hormonal regulation negative feedback neural regulation 22 When small amounts of blood are lost, blood pressure is restored by: interstitial reabsorption of fluids vasoconstriction increased red blood cell production

7 23 At birth, the foramen ovale closes due to: increased pressure in the left atrium increased pressure in the right atrium expansion of the lungs

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