The Neuroscience of Music in Therapy

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1 Course Objectives The Neuroscience of Music in Therapy Unit I. Learn Basic Brain Information Unit II. Music in the Brain; Why Music Works Unit III. Considerations for Populations a. Rehabilitation b. Habilitation Basic Divisions Peripheral Nervous Sys. Central Nervous System Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Subcortical structures Brainstem Spinal Cord Two Divisions: Somatic Autonomic Cranial Nerves Spinal Nerves Sensory Receptors

2 Somatic NS Autonomic NS Functions under voluntary control Motor Actions (Efferent or Descending) Cortex Brainstem Motor Nuclei (of Cranial Nerves) Periphery Parasympathetic NS cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glandular tissue Sympathetic NS Body s response to stress (fight-flightfreeze) Maintain homeostasis Message Transmission Parts of Neuron Neurons Process and transmit cellular signals Electrochemical signals Afferent and Efferent Signals Communicate with other neurons Dendrite (transmits info. toward soma) Soma (cell body) Axon (transmits info. away from soma) Axon Terminal (transmits info to receiving unit)

3 Neuron Function Excitation Increases activity Creates action potentials Inhibition Reduces Activity Stops action potentials Dendrite Soma Nodes of Ranvier Myelin Sheath Axon Terminal Matter Grey Matter Neuron cell bodies Hendelman Pages White Mater Tracts Motor Tracts

4 Related Disabilities Lobes Fragile X syndrome Undeveloped dendritic spines Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Degeneration of motor neurons Multiple Sclerosis Demyelination of axons Frontal - Conscious Thought, impulse control, socialization, motor function, language production, etc... Parietal - integrating sensory information, some visio-spacial processing Occipital - Visual Processing Temporal - Auditory and olfactory, face processing, memory function Lateral View: Henry Gray ( ). Anatomy of the Human Body Coloring Image 1

5 Prominent Areas You should Be Familiar With Motor Production Primary Motor Area Basal Ganglia Cerebellum Broca s Area & Wernicke's Area Brainstem Auditory Cortex Limbic Areas Primary motor area Somatotopically mapped Supplementary motor area Anterior to primary motor area

6 Motor Pathway (pyramidal) Related Disabilities Hendelman Pages Upper motor neuron disabilities Cerebral Palsy Cerebrovascular Accident Damage to motor area/tracts Basal Ganglia Large collection of gray matter within the hemispheres Corpus striatum (putamen, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens) Globus Pallidus Subthalamic Nucleus Substantia Nigra Hendelman Pages Basal Ganglia

7 Basal Ganglia Loop Cerebellum Cortex Cortex!Striatum!GP/Subst Nigra Hendelman Pages !Thalamus!Cortex Basal Ganglia Thalamus Cerebellum Cerebellar Loop Involved in: Coordination and timing of movement Balance and equilibrium of muscle tone Thought to have other functions, but not clearly understood Cortex!pons!cerebellum!dentate nucleus!thalamus!cortex Brain Stem Cortex Cerebellum Thalamus

8 Thalamus Hendelman Pg Process and relays sensory information Has divisions for different functions (i.e, area for speech) Involved in circuit with Basal Ganglia Location of Thalamus Related Motor Disabilities Broca s Area Basal Ganglia Disorders Parkinson s Disease Huntington s Disease Cerebellar Disorders Ataxic Dysarthria Autism Broca s Area Inferior Frontal Gyrus Typically left side specific Pars opercularis Pars triangularis Propositional speech

9 Wernicke s Area Free License Commons Wernicke s Area Posterior superior temporal gyrus Typically Left Hemisphere Language Comprehension and production Arcuate fasciculus Thought to connects Broca s and Wernicke's Extreme Capsule Debated to connect Broca s and Wernicke s Arcuate Fasiculus/ Extreme Capsule

10 Disorders related to Speech Areas Fluent Aphasia Non-fluent Aphasia Global Aphasia Coloring Page #2 Brainstem Descending and ascending tracts pass through the brainstem Plays a role in regulating life functions (cardiac & respiratory) Location of cranial nerves III - XII Pages Midbrain Pons Medulla Location of BrainStem

11 Cranial Nerves III Oculomotor (motor) IV Trochlear (motor) V Trigeminal (Sensory and motor) VI Abducens (motor) VII Facial (sensory and motor) VIII Vestibulocochlear (sensory) IX Glossopharyngeal (sensory and motor) X Vagus (sensory and motor) XI Accessory (motor) XII Hypoglossal (motor) Related Disabilities Brainstem Motor Nuclei Damage Paralysis Superior Temporal Gyrus Auditory Pathway Pg , Animation on Disk A.K.A. Auditory Cortex

12 Basic Path Cochlea Spiral Ganglion Cochlear Nuclei Superior Olivary Complex (bilateral) Inferior Colliculus Thalamus Auditory Cortex (Temporal Lobe) Coloring Page #2 We ve come this far... A few other inner structures Corpus Callosum Lateral Ventricle Amygdala Nucleus Accumbens Hippocampus Not pictured: Amygdala Nucleus Accumbens

13 Fun with Brains MIT Free Courses: An Interactive Brain: PBS Brain: Course Objectives Unit I. Learn Basic Brain Information Unit II. Music in the Brain; Why Music Works Unit III. Considerations for Populations a. Rehabilitation b. Habilitation Music & the Brain

14 Historically Right-Brained? It was thought that music was a function of the right hemisphere Language was a left-hemisphere function Now known to be an oversimplification Musical processing involves numerous areas of the cortex It is now known that music listening, performing, and composing engage regions throughout the brain, bilaterally, and in the cortex, neocortex, paleo-, and neocerebellum (Levitin & Tirovolas, 2009, p. 214) Music Engages The Cortex Music Engages The Subcortex Bilateral cortex Bilateral cortex Subcortex Subcortex Brainstem Brainstem Cerebellum Brainstem Cerebellum Cerebellum

15 Seung et al Inner Structures: Hippocampus, Amygdala, Basal Ganglia Nucleus Accumbens, Corpus Callosum Hemispheric Differences Right Hemisphere Dominance Most processes are distributed across both hemispheres Research has shown that there is hemispheric dominance for some functions Recognition of pitch and timbre Representation of melodies (error detection) Music Performance Emotional response to music Music memory (Peretz 2009)

16 Left Hemisphere Dominance Perception of Rhythm: Well-Cited Areas Rhythmic skills Sight-reading Naming notes, intervals and chords Learning music Lyric memorization Basal Ganglia (Janata & Grafton 2003; Levitin & Tirovolas, 2009) Premotor Cortex (Chen et al. 2008; Halsband et al. 1993) Supplementary Motor Area (Chen et al. 2008; Halsband et al. 1993; Levitin & Tirovolas, 2009) Cerebellum (Chen et al. 2008; Janata & Grafton 2003; Levitin & Tirovolas, 2009) During Tempo Tasks Grahn, J.A. and McAuley, J.D Grahn & Brett, 2007

17 Integrated Processing Stay At Home #1 Pitch, rhythm, and loudness are thought to be processed separately and then come together Give the impression of a complete musical product (Levitin 2009). Music processing and production is distributed throughout the brain Studies with persons who have had neurologic insult support this theory (see Peretz 2005) Stay At Home #2 Left Right X Extended Cortical Networks

18 Evidence of Plasticity Can change response in left anterior hippocampus (Herdener 2010) Sensorimotor connectivity (Pasual-Leone 2001) Perception-Action Mediation (Bengtsson et al. 2009) Auditory cortex with sensorimotor-auditory training (Pantev 2009) Differences in auditory cortex (Trainer et al. 2012) Arcuate Fasiculus/ Extreme Capsule Stay At Home #3 Cortical plasticity Arcuate Fasiculus/ Extreme Capsule

19 Malcolm et al., 2008 Stay At Home #4 Entrainment Auditory System Auditory Scaffolding Theory Deals with temporal information Is primed for time-based information Is highly effective and efficient in processing temporal information Conway, 2009 Proposes that the brain assigns temporal information predominantly to the auditory system Auditory system is specialized and highly sensitive for perceiving time information. Auditory tone sequences are better tracked and remembered than other stimuli Conway 2009

20 Auditory Scaffolding Theory Since many cognitive abilities require complex temporal organization, experiences in sound may provide a kind of scaffolding Used in re-training general cognitive abilities that involve temporal patterns or structure. Music may provide a superior auditory scaffold Auditory Scaffolding Cont. Music is highly temporal and predictable May provide enhanced auditory scaffolding experience Aid in more efficient/optimized rehabilitation and learning Stay At Home #5 Supporting Music Neuroscience Music is cortically distributed Music perception/production shares cortical networks with similar nonmusical tasks Auditory Scaffolding Musical processes can be maintained despite loss of similar nonmusical process Music can drive functions despite cortical damage (i.e., rhythmic entrainment and motor movement) The brain that engages in music is changed by engaging in music

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